Syllabus Class 12th Syllabus - Science Stream

### Science Stream NCERT Syllabus:

Science is one of the most sought after streams among students at the 10+2 level. Students can either opt for PCM (Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics) or PCB (Physics, Chemistry, and Biology). Some schools offer English Core while others offer English Elective, here we have mentioned the syllabus for both, alongwith the syllabus of Computer Science.

### CBSE Physics Class 12 Syllabus:

Unit I: Electrostatics

Chapter 1: Electric Charges and Fields
Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb�s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.
Electric flux, statement of Gauss�s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

Chapter 2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.
Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.

Unit II: Current Electricity

Chapter 3: Current Electricity
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm�s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.
Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff�s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, meter bridge.
Potentiometer - principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism

Chapter 4: Moving Charges and Magnetism
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted�s experiment.
Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
Ampere�s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids, Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.
Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Chapter 5: Magnetism and Matter
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth�s magnetic field and magnetic elements.
Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.

Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

Chapter 6: Electromagnetic Induction
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday�s laws, induced emf and current; Lenz�s Law, Eddy currents.
Self and mutual induction.

Chapter 7: Alternating Current
Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current.
AC generator and transformer.

Unit V: Electromagnetic Waves

Chapter 8: Electromagnetic Waves
Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).
Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Unit VI: Optics

Chapter 9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Ray Optics: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker�s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
Scattering of light - blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Chapter 10: Wave Optics
Wave optics: Wave-front and Huygen's principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle. Interference Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light Brewster's law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.

Unit VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation

Chapter 11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard�s observations; Einstein�s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.
Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).

Unit VIII: Atoms & Nuclei

Chapter 12: Atoms
Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford�s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

Chapter 13: Nuclei
Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivityalpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law.
Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

Unit IX: Electronic Devices

Chapter-14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only)
Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier;
Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator.
Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor and transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration), basic idea of analog and digital signals, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).

Unit X: Communication Systems

Chapter 15: Communication Systems
Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, satellite communication. Need for modulation, amplitude modulation and frequency modulation, advantages of frequency modulation over amplitude modulation. Basic ideas about internet, mobile telephony and global positioning system (GPS).

### List of Experiments:

Section A

1. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph for potential difference versus current.
2. To find the resistance of a given wire using meter bridge and hence determine the resistivity (specific resistance) of its material.
3. To verify the laws of combination (series) of resistances using a meter bridge.
4. To verify the Laws of combination (parallel) of resistances using a meter bridge.
5. To compare the EMF of two given primary cells using potentiometer.
6. To determine the internal resistance of given primary cell using potentiometer.
7. To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit.
8. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into a voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.
9. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of merit) into an ammeter of desired range and to verify the same.
10. To find the frequency of AC mains with a sonometer.

Section B

1. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a concave mirror and to rind the focal length.
2. To find the focal Length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.
3. To find the focal Length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between 1/u and 1/v.
4. To find the focal Length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.
5. To determine the angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and the angle of deviation.
6. To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
7. To find refractive index of a liquid by using convex Lens and plane mirror.
8. To draw the I-V characteristic curve for a p-n junction in forward bias and reverse bias.
9. To draw the characteristic curve of a Zener diode and to determine its reverse break down voltage.
10. To study the characteristic of a common - emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains.

### CBSE Chemistry Class 12 Syllabus:

Unit I: Solid State

Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n & p type semiconductors.

Unit II: Solution

Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties - relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult's law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, van't Hoff factor.

Unit III: Electrochemistry

Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell -electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and emf of a cell, fuel cells, corrosion.

Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics

Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.

Unit V: Surface Chemistry

Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis, homogenous and heterogenous activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis colloidal state distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion - types of emulsions.

Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, oxidation, reduction - electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.

Unit VII: p - Block Elements

Group 15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen preparation properties & uses ; compounds of nitrogen, preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (Structure only); Phosphorus - allotropic forms, compounds of phosphorus: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides PCl3 , PCl5 and oxoacids (elementary idea only).

Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, dioxygen: Preparation, Properties and uses, classification of oxides, Ozone, Sulphure -allotropic forms; compounds of sulphure: Preparation, properties and uses of sulphur-dioxide, sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses; oxoacids of sulphur (Structures only).

Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).

Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals - metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
Lanthanoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactvity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
Actinoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.

Unit IX: Coordination Compounds

Coordination compounds - Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereo isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative inclusion, extraction of metals and biological system).

Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, optical rotation.
Haloarenes: Nature of C -X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only.
Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform freons, DDT.

Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophillic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes: uses.
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.

Unit XIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen

Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides - will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

Unit XIV: Biomolecules

Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), D-L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen) importance.
Proteins - Elementary idea of α - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones - Elementary idea excluding structure.
Vitamins - Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.

Unit XV: Polymers

Classification - natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization, some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.

Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life

Chemicals in medicines - analgesics, tranquillizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
Chemicals in food - preservations, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.
Cleansing agents - soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

### Practicals:

Micro-chemical methods are available for several of the practical experiments. Wherever possible, such techniques should be used.

A. Surface chemistry
(a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol
Lyophilic sol - starch, egg albumin and gum
Lyophobic sol- aluminium hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, arsenous sulphide.
(b) Dialysis of sol-prepared in (a) above.
(c) Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsion of different oils.

B. Chemical Kinetics
(a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between Sodium Thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid.
(b) Study of reaction rates of any one of the following:
(i) Reaction of Iodide ion with Hydrogen Peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of Iodide ions.
(ii) Reaction between Potassium lodate, (KIO3,) and Sodium Sulphite: (Na2SO3,) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction).

C. Thermochemistry
Any one of the following experiments
i) Enthalpy of dissolution of Copper Sulphate or Potassium Nitrate.
ii) Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCl) and strong base (NaOH).
iii) Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (Hydrogen bond formation) between Acetone and Chloroform.

D. Electrochemistry
Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn2+ || Cu2+/Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4) at room temperature.

E. Chromatography
i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values.
ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having large difference in Rf values to be provided).

F. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds
i) Preparation of double salt of Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate or Potash Alum.
ii) Preparation of Potassium Ferric Oxalate.

G. Preparation of Organic Compounds
Preparation of any one of the following compounds
i) Acetanilide
ii) Di -benzal Acetone
iii) p-Nitroacetanilide
iv) Aniline yellow or 2 - Naphthol Aniline dye.

H. Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds:
Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino (Primary) groups.

I. Characteristic tests of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given food stuff.

J. Determination of concentration? Molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of:
i) Oxalic acid,
ii) Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate
(Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).

K. Qualitative analysis
Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt.
Cation ‒ Pb2+, Cu2+ As3+, Al3+, Fe3+, Mn2+ , Zn2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+
Anions ‒ CO3 2‒, S2‒, SO32‒, SO42‒, NO2‒, NO3‒, Cl‒, Br‒, I‒, PO43‒, C2O42‒, CH3COO‒
(Note: Insoluble salts excluded)

### CBSE Biology Class 12 Syllabus:

Unit VI. Reproduction

Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms
Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Asexual reproduction Modes of reproduction-Asexual and sexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreedings devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events-Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.

Chapter 3: Human Reproduction
Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).

Chapter 4: Reproductive Health
Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control � Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit VII. Genetics and Evolution

Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination - in humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance - Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorder in humans - Thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes.

Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation - Lac Operon; Genome and human ganeome project; DNA fingerprinting.

Chapter 7: Evolution
Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin's contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution - Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy - Weinberg's -principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

Unit VIII. Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter 8: Human Health and Diseases
Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDs; Adolescene, drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
Improvement in food production : Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculture, and Animal husbandry.

Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare
In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

Unit IX. Biotechnology and Its Applications

Chapter 11: Biotechnology - Principles and Processes
Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).

Chapter 12: Biotechnology and its Application
Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.

Unit X. Ecology and Environment

Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations
Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes - growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Chapter 14: Ecosystem
Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services - carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).

Chapter 15: Biodiversity and its Conservation
Concept of biodiversity; patterns of biodiversity; importance of biodiversity; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.

Chapter 16: Environmental Issues
Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change; ozone layer depletion; deforestation; any one case study as success story addressing environmental issue(s).

### List of Experiments:

A.
1. Study pollen germination on a slide.
2. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.
3. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity and presence of any living organism.
4. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at two widely different sites.
5. Study the plant population density by quadrat method.
6. Study the plant population frequency by quadrat method.
7. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.
8. Study the effect of different temperatures and three different pH on the activity of salivary amylase on starch.
9. Isolate DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya, etc.

B. Study/observation of the following (Spotting)
1. Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects, and birds).
2. Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide.
3. Identification of stages of gamete development, i.e., T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slides (from grasshopper mice).
4. Meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slides.
5. T.S. of blastula through permanent slides (Mammalian).
6. Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/sizes of any plant.
7. Prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow�s peak and colour blindness.
8. Controlled pollination - emasculation, tagging and bagging.
9. Common disease causing organisms Like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, Roundworm through permanent slides or specimens. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.
10. Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in xeric conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
11. Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.

### CBSE Mathematics Class 12 Syllabus:

Unit I: Relations and Functions

1. Relations and Functions
Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions, composite functions, inverse of a function. Binary operations.

2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Definition, range, domain, principal value branch. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions.

Unit II: Algebra

1. Matrices
Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero and identity matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Operation on matrices: Addition and multiplication and multiplication with a scalar. Simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Noncommutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2). Concept of elementary row and column operations. Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries).

2. Determinants
Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors, co-factors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.

Unit III: Calculus

1. Continuity and Differentiability
Continuity and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit functions. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions.
Derivatives of logarithmic and exponential functions. Logarithmic differentiation, derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives. Rolle's and Lagrange's Mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretation.

2. Applications of Derivatives
Applications of derivatives: rate of change of bodies, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents and normals, use of derivatives in approximation, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations).

3. Integrals
Integration as inverse process of differentiation.Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, Evaluation of simple integrals of the following types and problems based on them.

4. Applications of the Integrals
Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, circles/parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only), Area between any of the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable).

5. Differential Equations
Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation.Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables solutions of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type:
dy/dx + py = q, where p and q are functions of x or constants.
dx/dy + px = q, where p and q are functions of y or constants.

Unit IV: Vectors and Three-Dimensional Geometry

1. Vectors
Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Definition, Geometrical Interpretation, properties and application of scalar (dot) product of vectors, vector (cross) product of vectors, scalar triple product of vectors.

2. Three - dimensional Geometry
Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points.Cartesian equation and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines.Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane. Distance of a point from a plane.

Unit V: Linear Programming

1. Linear Programming
Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions (bounded and unbounded), feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints).

Unit VI: Probability

1. Probability
Conditional probability, multiplication theorem on probability. Independent events, total probability, Baye's theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of random variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.

### CBSE English Core Class 12 Syllabus:

Section A: Reading Unseen Passages and Note-making

Two unseen passages with a variety of very short answer/short answer or MCQ type questions to test comprehension, interpretation and inference. Vocabulary such as word formation and inference of meaning will also be tested.
The total length of the two passages will be between 1100 and 1200 words. The passage will include two of the following:
a. Factual passages, e.g., instructions, descriptions, reports.
b. Descriptive passages involving opinion, e.g., argumentative, persuasive or interpretative text.
c. Literary passages, e.g., extract from fiction, drama, poetry, essay or biography. A poem could be of 28-35 lines.
The passages can be literary, factual or discursive to test comprehensions. The length of one passage should be between 600-700 words.
A third passage of 400-500 words for note-making and abstraction.

Section B: Writing Skills

Short Answer Questions, e.g., advertisement and notices, designing or drafting posters, writing formal and informal invitations and replies.
Long Answer Questions: Letters based on verbal/visual input.
Letter types include
Business or official letters (for making enquiries, registering complaints, asking for and giving information, placing orders and sending replies)
Letters to the editor (giving suggestions or opinion on issues of public interest
Application for a job
Very Long Answer Questions: Two compositions based on visual and/or verbal Input may be descriptive or argumentative in nature such as an article, a debate or a speech.

Section C: Literature and Long Reading Text

Flamingo and Vistas
Very Short Answer Questions - Based on an extract from poetry to test comprehension and appreciation.
Short Answer Questions - Based on prose / drama / poetry from both the texts.
Long Answer Question - Based on texts to test global comprehension and extrapolation beyond the texts to bring out the key messages and values.
Long Answer Question - Based on texts to test global comprehension along with analysis and extrapolation.
Long Answer Question - Based on theme, plot and incidents from the prescribed novels.
Long Answer Question - Based on understanding appreciation, analysis, and interpretation of the character sketch.

### CBSE English Elective Class 12 Syllabus:

Two unseen passages (including poems) with a variety of questions including 04 marks for vocabulary such as word formation and inferring meaning. The total range of the two passages including a poem or a stanza, should be around 1000-1100 words to assess comprehension, analysis, inference, evaluation and literary appreciation.
550-600 words in length (for note-making and summarising)
450-500 words in length (to test comprehension)
The passage could be of any one of the following types:
Factual passages, e.g., illustrations, description, reports
Discursive passages involving opinion, e.g., argumentative, persuasive
Literary passages, e.g., poems, extracts from fiction, biography, autobiography, travelogue, etc. In the case of a poem, the text may be shorter than the prescribed word limit.

Section B: Writing Skills and Grammar

Short Answer Question: Notices, advertisements, factual description of people, places and objects, drafting posters, drafting, accepting and declining invitations.
Long Answer Question: Letter of any of the following types based on a verbal or visual input:
a) Official letters for making inquiries, suggesting changes - registering and responding to complaints, asking for and giving information, placing orders and sending replies.
b) Letters to the editor on various social, national and international issues.
c) Application for a job including CV (Curriculum Vitae) / Resum�.
Very Long Answer Question: Sustained writing task such as writing a speech, an article for a magazine or a report based on verbal/visual input.
Grammar
A variety of questions, as listed below may be asked, involving the application of grammar items in context (i.e., not in isolated sentences). The grammar syllabus will be sampled each year. Though only modals, determiners, voice and tense forms have been dealt with in class XI, however, other grammar items such as prepositions, verb forms, connectors which have been learnt earlier would also be included.
Very Short Questions and Multiple Choice Questions
Reordering of words and sentences
Composing a dialogue based on a given input
Error correction in sentences
Drafting questions / questionnaires based on given input

Section C: Literature: Prescribed Books and Long Reading Text (Novel)

Questions to test comprehension at different levels and of different kinds - local, global, interpretative, inferential, evaluative and extrapolative.
Very Short and Short Answer Questions: Two based on out of three extracts from different poems to test theme, setting and literary devices.
Short Answer Questions: Based on different prose / drama / poetry / pieces from the Literature Reader; to test local and global comprehension of ideas and languages used in the text.
Long Answer Question: Extended questions based on one of the prose texts or play in the Literature Reader to test global comprehension and for extrapolation beyond the text.
Long Answer Questions: To test understanding, appreciation, analysis, inference in a plot and writing a character sketch.
Note: Values based questions for 4 marks may be asked in Sections - B or C.

### CBSE Computer Science Class 12 Syllabus:

UNIT 1: PROGRAMMING IN C++

REVIEW: C++ covered In Class -XI,
Defining a symbol name using typedef keyword and defining a macro using #define directive;
Need for User defined data type;
Structures:
Defining a Structure, Declaring structure variables, Accessing structure elements, Passing structure to Functions as value and reference argument/parameter, Function returning structure, Array of structures, passing an array of structure as an argument/a parameter to a function;
Object Oriented Programming:
Concept of Object Oriented Programming � Data hiding, Data encapsulation, Class and Object, Abstract class and Concrete class, Polymorphism (Implementation of polymorphism using Function overloading as an example in C++); Inheritance, Advantages of Object Oriented Programming over earlier programming methodologies,
Implementation of Object Oriented Programming concepts in C++:
Definition of a class, Members of a class - Data Members and Member Functions(methods), Using Private and Public visibility modes, default visibility mode(private); Member function definition: inside class definition and outside class definition using scope resolution operator (::); Declaration of objects as instances of a class; accessing members from object(s), Array of type class, Objects as function arguments - pass by value and pass by reference;
Constructor and Destructor:
Constructor: Special Characteristics, Declaration and Definition of a constructor,Default Constructor, Overloaded Constructors, Copy Constructor, and Constructor with default arguments;
Destructor: Special Characteristics, Declaration and definition of destructor;
Inheritance (Extending Classes): Concept of Inheritance, Base Class, Derived Class, Defining derived classes, protected visibility mode; Single level inheritance, Multilevel inheritance and Multiple inheritance, Privately derived,Publicly derived and Protectedly derived class, accessibility of members from objects and within derived class(es);
Data File Handling:
Need for a data file, Types of data files � Text file and Binary file;
Basic file operations on text file: Creating/Writing text into file, Reading and Manipulation of text from an already existing text File (accessing sequentially);
Binary File: Creation of file, Writing data into file, Searching for required data from file, Appending data to a file, Insertion of data in sorted file, Deletion of data from file, Modification of data in a file;
Implementation of above mentioned data file handling in C++;
Components of C++ to be used with file handling:
Header file: fstream.h; ifstream, ofstream, fstream classes;
Opening a text file in in, out, and app modes;
Using cascading operators for writing text to the file and reading text from the file;open(), get(), put(), getline() and close() functions; Detecting end-of-file (with or without using eof() function);
Opening a binary file using in, out, and app modes;
open(), read(), write() and close() functions; Detecting end-of-file (with or without using eof() function); tellg(), tellp(), seekg(), seekp() functions
Pointers:
Declaration and Initialization of Pointers; Dynamic memory allocation/deallocation operators: new, delete; Pointers and Arrays: Array of Pointers, Pointer to an array (1 dimensional array), Function returning a pointer,Reference variables and use of alias; Function call by reference. Pointer to structures: Deference operator: *, ->; self-referential structures;

UNIT 2: DATA STRUCTURES

Arrays:
One and two Dimensional arrays: Sequential allocation and address calculation;
One dimensional array: Traversal, Searching (Linear, Binary Search), Insertion of an element in an array, deletion of an element from an array, Sorting (Insertion,Selection, Bubble sort), concatenation of two linear arrays, merging of two sorted arrays;
Two-dimensional arrays: Traversal, Finding sum/difference of two NxM arrays containing numeric values, Interchanging Row and Column elements in a two dimensional array;
Stack (Array and Linked implementation of Stack):
Operations on Stack (PUSH and POP) and its Implementation in C++,Converting expressions from INFIX to POSTFIX notation and evaluation of Postfix expression;
Queue: (Circular Array and Linked Implementation):
Operations on Queue (Insert and Delete) and its Implementation in C++.

UNIT 3: DATABASES AND SQL

Database Concepts:
Relational data model: Concept of domain, tuple, relation, key, primary key,alternate key, candidate key;
Relational algebra: Selection, Projection, Union and Cartesian product;
Structured Query Language:
General Concepts: Advantages of using SQL, Data Definition Language and Data Manipulation Language;
Data types: NUMBER, CHARACTER, DATE;
SQL commands:
CREATE TABLE, DROP TABLE, ALTER TABLE, UPDATE...SET..., INSERT,DELETE;
SELECT, DISTINCT, FROM, WHERE, IN, BETWEEN, GROUP BY, HAVING,ORDER BY;
SQL functions: SUM, AVG, COUNT, MAX and MIN;
Note: Implementation of the above mentioned commands could be done on any SQL supported software.

UNIT 4: BOOLEAN ALGEBRA

Evolution of Boolean algebra, Binary-valued Quantities, Boolean Variable,Boolean Constant and Boolean Operators: AND, OR, NOT; Truth Tables;Closure Property, Commutative Law, Associative Law, Identity law, Inverse law,Principle of Duality, Idempotent Law, Distributive Law, Absorption Law, Involution Law, DeMorgan's Law and their applications;
Obtaining Sum of Product (SOP) and Product of Sum (POS) form from the Truth Table, Reducing Boolean Expression (SOP and POS) to its minimal form, Use of Karnaugh Map for minimisation of Boolean expressions (up to 4 variables);
Basic Logic Gates (NOT, AND, OR, NAND, NOR) and their use in circuits.

UNIT 5: COMMUNICATION AND NETWORK CONCEPTS

Evolution of Networking: ARPANET, Internet, Interspace;
Different ways of sending data across the network with reference to switching techniques;
Data Communication terminologies: Concept of Channel, Baud, Bandwidth (Hz, KHz, MHz) and Data transfer rate (bps, kbps, Mbps, Gbps, Tbps);
Network devices: Modem, RJ45 connector, Ethernet Card, Hub, Switch,Gateway;
Different Topologies- Bus, Star, Tree; Concepts of LAN, WAN, MAN;
Protocol: TCP/IP, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), PPP, Level-Remote Login(Telnet), Internet, Wireless/Mobile Communication, GSM, CDMA, WLL, 3G, SMS, Voice mail, Application Electronic Mail, Chat, Video Conferencing;
Network Security Concepts: Cyber Law, Firewall, Cookies, Hackers and Crackers;
WebPages; Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML), eXtensible Markup Language(XML); Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP); Domain Names; URL; Protocol Address; Website, Web browser, Web Servers; Web Hosting.

### Practicals:

1. Programming in C++ (10 marks)
One programming problem in C++ to be developed and tested in Computer during the examination. Marks are allotted on the basis of following:
Logic: 5 Marks
Documentation/Indentation: 2 Marks
Output presentation: 3 Marks
Notes: The types of problems to be given will be of application type from the following topics
- Arrays (One dimensional and two dimensional)
- Array of structure
- Stack using arrays and linked implementation
- Queue using arrays (circular) and linked implementation
- Binary File operations (Creation, Displaying, Searching and modification)
- Text File operations (Creation, Displaying and modification)

2. SQL Commands (5 marks)
Five Query questions based on a particular Table/Reaction to be tested practically on Computer during the examination. The command along with the result must be written in the answer sheet.

3. Project Work (5 marks)
The project has to be developed in C++ language with Object Oriented Technology and also should have use of Data files.
- Presentation on the computer
- Project report (Listing, Sample, Outputs, Documentation
- Viva

4. Practical File (5 marks)
Must have minimum 20 programs from the following topics
- Arrays (One dimensional and two dimensional, sorting, searching, merging, deletion and insertion of elements)
- Arrays of structures, Arrays of Objects
- Stacks using arrays and linked implementation
- Queues using arrays (linear and circular) and linked implementation
- File (Binary and Text) operations (Creation, Updation, Query)
- Any computational based problems
15 SQL commands along with the output based on any table/relation: 3 Marks

5. Viva Voce (5 marks)
Viva will be asked from syllabus covered in class XII and the project developed by the student.