Asexual reproduction is a rapid mode of multiplication in which
single parent is involved. The cells divide either mitotic ally or asymptotically. The new individuals produced in asexual reproduction are exactly similar to their parent (i.e. clone). Asexual reproduction is of following types
(i) Fission Found in unicellular organisms. Fission leads to equal division of the cell, e.g. Amoeba.
(ii) fragmentation By simple breaking of body part and generation of whole body by fragmented part, e.g. Spirogyra, bryophytes, etc.
(iii) Regeneration Any part of body has the ability to form the new part, e.g. Hydra.
(iv) Budding Any bud comes out the body and capable to grow into full length body of main organism, e.g. Hydra, yeast, etc.
(v) Vegetative propagation Any part of plant body cyclops into new plant. vegetative propagation is of following types
(a) Cuttings It is of three types
• Stem cuttings, e.g. sugarcane, rose, Bougainvillea.
• Root cuttings, e.g. apple, lemon.
• Leaf cuttings, e.g. Begonia, etc.
(J) Grafting, e.g. mango, guava, rubber, etc.
(c) Layering, e.g. jasmine.
(d) Leaves When the leaves fall down in soil, from their edges, new plants arc formed. e.g. Bryophyllum and Begonia, etc.
(vi) Spore formation in many multi cellular organisms, spore is the reproductive cell, which has the ability to Crminate and give rise to a new colony. Algae, ferns, mosses and fungi reproduce through spore formation. Different types of spores produced in different organisms are as follows
(a) Zoospores (motile), e.g. Algae-Ulotlnix, Oedogonium, Fungi-Pythium and Achlya.
(J) Sporangiospores non-motile), e.g. Mucor and Rhizopus.
(c) Conidia (non-mo:ile), e.g. Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium.
(d) Cysts (thick coverings), e.g. Vaucheria and Botrydium.