Following diseases are caused by bacteria.
`text(1. 'Tuberculosis (TB))`
• It is caused by Mycobtcterium tuberculosis (gram positive).
• It spreads through coughing, sneezing, talking and splitting droplets. Symptoms of this disease are fever, cough, sputum with blood, chest pain, loss of appetite, weight loss.
• It can be persevered by immunization that includes BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) vaccine, isolation of patient, sanitation, etc.
• Antibiotics such :ls rifampicin, isoniazid, etc.
It is caused by Corynebactcnmn diphtheriae (gram positive).
• Infection occurs through droplets.
• It is characterised by slight fever, oozing of semisolid materiel in throat (sore throat).
• Immunisation is done with DPT vaccine.
`text(3. Pertussis/Whooping Cough)`
• It is caused by Bacillur pertussis or Bordetella pertussis
• infection occurs through direct contact and droplets, characterized by inflammation of npiratory passage, cold,
cough and mild fever in beginning leading to accumulation of mucus and inspiratory whoop.
Van:ination is done with DPT (Diphtheria), pertussis and Tetanu), use of antibiotic drugs like erythromycin, chloramphenicol and ampicillin.
`text(4. Tetanus /lock Jaw Disease (Dhanustamba))`
• It is caused by Clostridium tetani (rod-shaped, gram positive). Its infection occurs through spores of bacteria entering into body via wounds, accidents and unsterilised surgical instruments as this bacterium secretes tetanospasmin toxin.
• It is characterised by muscular rigidity (lock jaw) and painful muscular spasm.
• Injection of ATS (Anti Tetanus Serum) within 24 hours of injury leads to protection against this disease.
• It is caused by Vibrio cholerae.
• It spreads through contaminated food and water or by direct contact.
• 1 t is characterised by effortless watery stool, vomiting, rapid dehydration, muscular cramps.
• It is treated by use of ORS (Oral Rehydration Solution) and sanitation.
• ORS contains (1L) 1.5 g glucose, 3,5 g NaCl, 2.9 g KCl and 12.9 g trisodium citrate.
• It is caused by Salmonella typhimurium (salmonellosis) and Shigella shigt'Je (shigellosis).
• It spreads though contaminated meat and other proteinaceous food articles and transmitted through fingers, beds, clothes and utensils and most importantly by faeces.
• Vomiting, nausea, headache, paratyphoid fever and frequent passage of stool with mucus, blood and abdominal cramps are symptoms.
• Oral and intravenous rehydration is required for treatment.
• It is caused by Diplococcus pneumonlae or Streptococcus pneumoniae (gram positive).
• It transmits through droplets (sputum).
• Symptoms are sudden chill, chest pain, cough with rusty mucoid sputum and rise in temperature.
• It is treated by uses of drugs like erythromycin, tetracycline and penicillin.
It is caused by Treponema pallidum (a spirochatte).
• It transmits through sexual contact and from mother to children. Common symptoms are painless ulcer on the genitals and swelling of local lymph glands, rashes, hair loss, swollen joints and flu-like illness.
• Disease is curable through appropriate antibiotics, e.g. penicilli.n and tetracycline.
• It is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Diplococcus gonorrboeae.
• It spre;tds through sexual contact, common toilets and under clothes. Bacterium lives in genital tubes, produces pus containing discharge, pain around genitalia and burning sensation during urination.
• Use of antibiotics, e.g. penicillin, ampicillin and maintain high moral characters.
• It is Venereal Disease (VD) or Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD).
`text(10. Plague/Bubonic Plague (Black Death))`
• This disease is caused by Yersinia pestis or Pasturella pastis.
• It spreads through rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis) to man.
• Symptoms are armpit and groin swell up into painful buboes, high-fever, chill, exhaustion and haemorrhages, which turns black.
• Treatment with antiplague vaccine
spraying of pesticides killing of rats.
• Wayson stain test is performed for diagnosis of this disease.
• It i:; caused by Salmonella typhi.
• It spreads through food, milk and water contaminated with intestinal discharge· either directly or through housefuls.
• High fever in steps, lesions and ulceration in the intestinal wall are common symptoms. Use of antibiotics (ampicillin and chloramphenicol), prolonged treatment is required for this disease.
• `text(Widal test)` is performed for diagnosis of this disease.
`text(12. Leprosy (Hansen's Disease)`
• It is caused by Mycobacterium leprae.
• It does not spread by initial contact, but prolonged closer contact through skin lesions, nasal and throat discharges also spreads this disease.
• Sanitatton and use of suitable drugs like dapsone, rifampicin, ofloxacin and chaulmoogra oil along with surgery may protect from the disease.
• Bacteri.um can enter into the body and damage nerves, skin, lymph nodes, eyes, nose, mouth, larynx, muscles , spleen, etc.
• Appearance of skin patches, numbness in some body parts, fever, finally ulcer, nodules, lesions, scaly scabs, deformities in finger, toes and wasting of body parts are symptoms.
• It is caused by Clostridium botulinum.
• Symptoms arc double vision, blurred vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty in swallowing, dry mouth and muscle weakness.
• It spreads through contaminated food and water or food stuffs product.
• To remove the source of toxin producing bacteria, the administration of proper antibiotics are used.