Chemistry Vitamins
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### Topics Covered :

● Vitamins
● Classification of Vitamins

### Vitamins :

=> It has been observed that certain organic compounds are required in small amounts in our diet but their deficiency causes specific diseases. These compounds are called vitamins.

=> Most of the vitamins cannot be synthesised in our body but plants can synthesise almost all of them, so they are considered as essential food factors.

=> However, the bacteria of the gut can produce some of the vitamins required by us.

=> All the vitamins are generally available in our diet.

=> Different vitamins belong to various chemical classes and it is difficult to define them on the basis of structure.

=> They are generally regarded as organic compounds required in the diet in small amounts to perform specific biological functions for normal maintenance of optimum growth and health of the organism.

=> Vitamins are designated by alphabets color{red}(A, B,C, D), etc.

● Some of them are further named as sub-groups e.g. color{red}(B_1, B_2, B_6, B_(12)), etc.

=> Excess of vitamins is also harmful and vitamin pills should not be taken without the advice of doctor.

=> The term “Vitamine” was coined from the word vital + amine since the earlier identified compounds had amino groups.

● Later work showed that most of them did not contain amino groups, so the letter ‘e’ was dropped and the term vitamin is used these days.

### Classification of Vitamins :

Vitamins are classified into two groups depending upon their solubility in water or fat.

(i) color{green}("Fat Soluble Vitamins ") : Vitamins which are soluble in fat and oils but insoluble in water are kept in this group.

● These are vitamins color{red}(A, D, E) and color{red}(K). They are stored in liver and adipose (fat storing) tissues.

(ii) color{green}("Water Soluble Vitamins ") : color{red}(B) group vitamins and vitamin color{red}(C) are soluble in water so they are grouped together.

● Water soluble vitamins must be supplied regularly in diet because they are readily excreted in urine and cannot be stored (except vitamin color{red}(B_(12))) in our body.

=> Some important vitamins, their sources and diseases caused by their deficiency are listed in Table 14.3.