Chemistry Liquid State and Vapour Pressure

### Topics Covered :

● Liquid State
● Vapour Pressure

### Liquid State :

=> Intermolecular forces are stronger in liquid state than in gaseous state.

=> Molecules in liquids are so close that there is very little empty space between them and under normal conditions liquids are denser than gases.

=> Molecules of liquids are held together by attractive intermolecular forces.

=> Liquids have definite volume because molecules do not separate from each other.

=> Molecules of liquids can move past one another freely, therefore, liquids can flow, can be poured and can assume the shape of the container in which these are stored.

### Vapour Pressure :

=> If an evacuated container is partially filled with a liquid, a portion of liquid evaporates to fill the remaining volume of the container with vapour.

● Initially the liquid evaporates and pressure exerted by vapours on the walls of the container (vapour pressure) increases.

● After some time it becomes constant, an equilibrium is established between liquid phase and vapour phase.

● Vapour pressure at this stage is known as text(equilibrium vapour pressure) or text(saturated vapour pressure).

=> Since process of vapourisation is temperature dependent; the temperature must be mentioned while reporting the vapour pressure of a liquid.

=> When a liquid is heated in an open vessel, the liquid vapourises from the surface.

● At the temperature at which vapour pressure of the liquid becomes equal to the external pressure, vapourisation can occur throughout the bulk of the liquid and vapours expand freely into the surroundings.

● The condition of free vapourisation throughout the liquid is called text(boiling).

text(Boiling Temperature :) The temperature at which vapour pressure of liquid is equal to the external pressure is called boiling temperature at that pressure.

● Vapour pressure of some common liquids at various temperatures is given in fig.

text(Boiling Point :) At 1 atm pressure boiling temperature is called normal text(boiling point).

text(Standard Boiling Point :) If pressure is 1 bar then the boiling point is called text(standard boiling point of the liquid).

● Standard boiling point of the liquid is slightly lower than the normal boiling point because 1 bar pressure is slightly less than 1 atm pressure.

● The normal boiling point of water is 100 °C (373 K), its standard boiling point is 99.6°C (372.6 K).

=> At high altitudes, atmospheric pressure is low. Therefore, liquids at high altitudes boil at lower temperatures in comparison to that at sea level.

● Since water boils at low temperature on hills, the pressure cooker is used for cooking food.

=> In hospitals surgical instruments are sterilized in autoclaves in which boiling point of water is increased by increasing the pressure above the atmospheric pressure by using a weight covering the vent.

=> Boiling does not occur when liquid is heated in a closed vessel.

=> On heating continuously vapour pressure increases.

● At first, a clear boundary is visible between liquid and vapour phase because liquid is more dense than vapour.

● As the temperature increases more and more molecules go to vapour phase and density of vapours rises.

● At the same time liquid becomes less dense. It expands because molecules move apart.

text(Critical Temperature :) When density of liquid and vapours becomes the same; the clear boundary between liquid and vapours disappears. This temperature is called critical temperature.