Chemistry

### DEFINITION

•color{green}["Thermal energy"]: Thermal energy is the energy of a body arising from motion of its atoms or molecules.

•color{green}["Boyle's law"]: At constant temperature, the pressure of a fixed amount (i.e., number of moles n) of gas varies inversely with its volume. This is known as Boyle’s law.

•color{green}["Charle's law"]:For a fixed mass of a gas at constant pressure, volume of a gas increases on increasing temperature and decreases on cooling.

•color{green}["Gay Lussac's law"]:At constant volume, pressure of a fixed amount of a gas varies directly with the temperature.

•color{green}["Avogadro's law"]: Equal volumes of all gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal number of molecules.

•color{green}["Ideal gas equation"]: The three laws which we have learnt till now can be combined together in a single equation which is known as ideal gas equation.

•color{green}["Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures"]: The total pressure exerted by the mixture of non-reactive gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of individual gases i.e., the pressures which these gases would exert if they were enclosed separately in the same volume and under the same conditions of temperature.

•color{green}["Boyle temperature"]:The temperature at which a real gas obeys ideal gas law over an appreciable range of pressure is called Boyle temperature or Boyle point.

•color{green}["Critical temperature"]:Critical temperature of a gas may be defined as that temperature above which it cannot be liquified howsoever high pressure may be applied on the gas.

•color{green}["Boiling temperature"]:The temperature at which vapour pressure of liquid is equal to the external pressure is called boiling temperature at that pressure.

•color{green}["Boiling point"]: At 1 atm pressure boiling temperature is called normal text(boiling point).

•color{green}["Standard Boiling point"]: If pressure is 1 bar then the boiling point is called text(standard boiling point of the liquid).

•color{green}["Surface tension"]:Surface tension of a liquid is defined as the force acting at right angles to the surface along one centimetre length of the surface. Thus, the units of surface tension are dynes per cm.

•color{green}["Surface energy"]:The energy required to increase the surface area of the liquid by one unit is defined as text(surface energy).

•color{green}["Viscosity"]: It is a measure of resistance to flow which arises due to the internal friction between layers of fluid as they slip past one another while liquid flows.

•color{green}["Laminar flow"]:The velocity of upper layers increases as the distance of layers from the fixed layer increases. This type of flow in which there is a regular gradation of velocity in passing from one layer to the next is called laminar flow.

•color{green}["Viscosity coefficient"]It is the force when velocity gradient is unity and the area of contact is unit area.