•`color{green} ("Minerals")` : These are naturally occurring chemical substances in the earth’s crust obtainable by mining.

•`color{green} ("Ores")` : Minerals in which a metal may be found, only a few are viable to be used as sources of that metal. Such minerals are known as ores.

•`color{green} ("Gangue")` : Rarely, an ore contains only a desired substance. It is usually contaminated with earthly or undesired materials known as gangue.

•`color{green} ("Metallurgy")` :The entire scientific and technological process used for isolation of the metal from its ores is known as metallurgy.

•`color{green} ("Benefaction")` : Removal of the unwanted materials (e.g., sand, clays, etc.) from the ore is known as concentration, dressing or benefaction.

•`color{green} ("Electrometallurgy")` : The process of extraction of metals by electrolysis of their fused salts is called electrometallurgy. Here electrons serve as reducing agent.