`star` Types of Roots
`star` Regions of a Root
`star` Modifications of the Root


● `color{Brown}"Tap Root System"`

`star` Found: In majority of the `color{Violet}"dicotyledonous plants"`.

`star` The direct elongation of the `color{Violet}"radical"` leads to the formation of `color{Violet}"primary root"` which grows inside the soil.

`star` It bears `color{Violet}"lateral roots"` of several orders that are referred to as `color{Violet}"secondary, tertiary"`, etc. roots.

`star` The primary roots and its branches constitute the `color{Violet}"tap root system"`.

`star`Example : mustard plant

● `color{Brown}"Fibrous Root System"`

`star` Found: In `color{Violet}"monocotyledonous plants"`

`star`The primary root is `color{Violet}"short lived"` and is replaced by a large number of roots.

`star` These roots originate from the `color{Violet}"base of the stem"` and constitute the `color{Violet}"fibrous root system"`.

`star` Example: wheat plant

● `color{Brown}"Adventitious Root System"`

`star` In some plants, roots arise from parts of the plant `color{Violet}"other than the radicle"` and are called `color{Violet}"adventitious roots"`.

`star` Example: grass, Monstera and the banyan tree


● `color{Brown}"Root Cap"`

`star` The root is covered at the apex by a `color{Violet}"thimble-like structure"` called the `color{Violet}"root cap"`.

`star` It `color{Violet}"protects"` the `color{Violet}"tender apex"` of the root as it makes its way through the soil.

● `color{Brown}"Region of Meristematic Activity:"`

`star` A few millimetres above the root cap is the region of meristematic activity.

`star` The cells of this region are very `color{Violet}"small"`, `color{Violet}"thin-walled"` and with `color{Violet}"dense protoplasm"`.

`star` They `color{Violet}"divide repeatedly"`.

● `color{Brown}"Region of Elongation:"`

`star` The cells proximal to this region undergo `color{Violet}"rapid elongation and enlargement"`.

`star` They are responsible for the `color{Violet}"growth"` of the root in `color{Violet}"length"`.

`star` This region is called the `color{Violet}"region of elongation"`.

● `color{Brown}"Region of Maturation:"`

`star` The cells of the elongation zone gradually `color{Violet}"differentiate and mature"`.

`star` Hence, this zone, proximal to region of elongation, is called the `color{Violet}"region of maturation"`.

● `color{Brown}"Root hairs:"`

`star` From the Region of maturation, some of the `color{Violet}"epidermal cells"` form very `color{Violet}"fine and delicate"`, `color{Violet}"thread-like structures"` called `color{Violet}"root hairs"`.

`star` These root hairs `color{Violet}"absorb"` water and minerals from the soil.


● Roots in some plants `color{Violet}"change their shape and structure"` and become modified to perform functions other than absorption and conduction of water and minerals.

●They are `color{Violet}"modified"` for support, storage of food and respiration

● `color{Brown}"Storage Roots"`
`star` The roots get `color{Violet}"swollen"` and store food materials.

`star` Example: Tap roots in carrot, turnip, radish and adventitious roots in sweet potato, etc.

● `color{Brown}"Prop Roots"`
`star` They are huge `color{Violet}"pillar-like outgrowths"` of the aerial branches, which show downward growth.

`star` They become `color{Violet}"large and woody"`, to `color{Violet}"support"` the expanding canopy of the tree.

`star` Example : Banyan.

● `color{Brown}"Stilt Roots"`
`star` These are the `color{Violet}"supporting roots"` which arise from the `color{Violet}"lower nodes"` of the stem.

`star` Example: Maize and Sugar cane.

● `color{Brown}"Pneumatophores"`
`star` These are the branches of roots that `color{Violet}"come out of the ground"` and grow `color{Violet}"vertically upwards"`.

`star` They have openings called `color{Violet}"pneumathodes"` for exchange of gases like `color{Violet}"oxygen for respiration"`.

`star` These are found in plants which grow in `color{Violet}"swampy areas"`.

`star` Example: Rhizophora