`star` Introduction
`star` Ovaries
`star` Female Accessory ducts
`star` Uterus
`star` Female external Genitalia
`star` Mammary Gland


● `color{Brown}"Location"`: It is located in `color{Violet}"pelvic"` region.

● `color{Brown}"Components"`:
`star` The female reproductive system consists of a pair of `color{Violet}"ovaries"` (gonad) along with a pair of `color{Violet}"oviducts"`, `color{Violet}"uterus, cervix, vagina"` and the `color{Violet}"external genitalia"`.

`star` The oviducts (fallopian tubes), uterus and vagina constitute the `color{Violet}"female accessory ducts"`.

● These parts of the system along with a pair of the `color{Violet}"mammary glands"` are `color{Violet}"integrated"` structurally and functionally to `color{Violet}"support"` the processes of ovulation, fertilisation, pregnancy, birth and child care.


● `color{Brown}"Location"`:
`star` The ovaries are located one on `color{Violet}"each side"` of the `color{Violet}"lower abdomen"`.

`star` They are connected to the pelvic wall and uterus by `color{Violet}"ligaments"`.

● `color{Brown}"Function"`: Ovaries are the primary `color{Violet}"female sex organs"` that produce the female gamete (`color{Violet}"ovum"`) and several steroid hormones (`color{Violet}"ovarian hormones"`).

● `color{Brown}"Dimensions of an Ovary"`: Each ovary is about `color{Violet}"2 to 4 cm"` in length.

● `color{Brown}"Components of Ovary"`:
`star` Each ovary is covered by a `color{Violet}"thin epithelium"` which encloses the `color{Violet}"ovarian stroma"`.

`star` The stroma is divided into two zones – a `color{Violet}"peripheral cortex"` and an `color{Violet}"inner medulla"`.


● The oviducts (fallopian tubes), uterus and vagina constitute the `color{Violet}"female accessory ducts"`.

● `color{Brown}"FALLOPIAN TUBE"`:
`star` Each fallopian tube is about `color{Violet}"10-12 cm"` long and extends from the `color{Violet}"periphery of each ovary"` to the uterus.

`star` The part closer to the ovary is the `color{Violet}"funnel-shaped"` `color{Violet}"infundibulum"`.

`star` The edges of the infundibulum possess `color{Violet}"finger-like projections"` called `color{Violet}"fimbriae"`, which help in collection of the `color{Violet}"ovum"` after ovulation.

`star` The infundibulum leads to a `color{Violet}"wider part"` of the oviduct called `color{Violet}"ampulla"`.

`star` The last part of the oviduct, `color{Violet}"isthmus"` has a narrow `color{Violet}"lumen"` and it joins the uterus.


`=>` `color{blue}"Birth canal"` : The channel formed by the `color{Violet}"cervix, vagina, and vulva"` through which the fetus in mammals is expelled during parturtion.

`=>` `color{blue}"Womb"` : (The `color{Violet}"uterus"`) It is the organ in the lower body of a woman or female mammal where offspring are `color{Violet}"conceived"` and in undergo `color{Violet}"gestation"` before birth.

`color{green} ✍️ color{green} mathbf("KEY CONCEPT")`

● The uterus is `color{Violet}"single"` and it is also called `color{Violet}"womb"`.

● The shape of the uterus is like an `color{Violet}"inverted pear"`.

● It is supported by `color{Violet}"ligaments"` attached to the pelvic wall.

● The uterus opens into vagina through a `color{Violet}"narrow cervix"`.

● The cavity of the cervix is called `color{Violet}"cervical canal"` which along with `color{Violet}"vagina"` forms the `color{Violet}"birth canal"`.

● `color{Brown}"Walls of the Uterus"`:
The wall of the uterus has `color{Violet}"three layers"` of tissue.

● The external thin membranous `color{Violet}"perimetrium"`, middle thick layer of smooth muscle, `color{Violet}"myometrium"` and inner glandular layer called `color{Violet}"endometrium"` that lines the uterine cavity.

● The endometrium undergoes `color{Violet}"cyclical changes"` during menstrual cycle while the myometrium exhibits `color{Violet}"strong contraction"` during delivery of the baby.


● `color{Brown}"Components"`: The female external genitalia include `color{Violet}"mons pubis"`, `color{Violet}"labia majora"`, `color{Violet}"labia minora"`, `color{Violet}"hymen"` and `color{Violet}"clitoris"`.

● Mons pubis is a `color{Violet}"cushion"` of `color{Violet}"fatty tissue"` covered by skin and pubic hair.

● The labia majora are `color{Violet}"fleshy folds of tissue"`, which extend down from the mons pubis and surround the vaginal opening.

● The labia minora are `color{Violet}"paired folds"` of tissue under the labia majora.

● The opening of the vagina is often covered partially by a membrane called `color{Violet}"hymen"`.

● The `color{Violet}"clitoris"` is a tiny `color{Violet}"finger-like structure"` which lies at the upper junction of the two labia minora above the urethral opening.

● The hymen is often torn during the `color{Violet}"first coitus"` (intercourse).

● However, it can also be `color{Violet}"broken"` by a sudden fall or jolt, insertion of a vaginal tampon, active participation in some sports like horseback riding, cycling, etc.

● In some women the hymen persists even after coitus.

● In fact, the presence or absence of hymen is `color{Violet}"not a"` `color{Violet}"reliable indicator"` of `color{Violet}"virginity"` or sexual experience.


● A `color{Violet}"functional"` `color{Violet}"mammary gland"` is characteristic of all female mammals.

● The mammary glands are `color{Violet}"paired structures"` (breasts) that contain `color{Violet}"glandular tissue"` and variable amount of `color{Violet}"fat"`.

● The glandular tissue of each breast is divided into `color{Violet}"15-20 mammary lobes"` containing clusters of cells called `color{Violet}"alveoli"`.

● The cells of alveoli secrete `color{Violet}"milk"`, which is stored in the `color{Violet}"cavities"` (lumens) of alveoli.

● The alveoli open into `color{Violet}"mammary tubules"`.

● The tubules of each lobe join to form a `color{Violet}"mammary duct"`.

● Several mammary ducts join to form a wider `color{Violet}"mammary ampulla"` which is connected to `color{Violet}"lactiferous duct"` through which milk is sucked out.