`star` Measures by Government
`star` Introduction to Contraceptives
`star` Natural methods
`star` Barrier methods


● The most important step to overcome problem of `color{Violet}"population explosion"` is to motivate `color{Violet}"smaller families"` by using various `color{Violet}"contraceptive methods"`.

● `color{Violet}"Broadcasting"` of `color{Violet}"advertisements"` in the media as well as posters/bills, etc., showing a happy couple with two children with a slogan `color{Violet}"Hum Do Hamare Do"` (we two, our two).

● Resultantly, many couples, mostly the young, urban, working ones have even adopted an `color{Violet}"one child norm"`.

● Statutory raising of marriageable age of the `color{Violet}"female to 18"` years and that of `color{Violet}"males to 21"` years

● `color{Violet}"Incentives"` given to couples with `color{Violet}"small families"`.


`color{green} ✍️ color{green} mathbf("KEY CONCEPT")`

● An `color{Violet}"ideal"` contraceptive should be

`star` `color{Violet}"User-friendly"`

`star` `color{Violet}"Easily available"`

`star` `color{Violet}"Effective"` and `color{Violet}"reversible"` with no or least side-effects.

`star` Should in `color{Violet}"no way interfere"` with the sexual drive, desire and/or the sexual act of the user.

● A `color{Violet}"wide range"` of `color{Violet}"contraceptive methods"` are presently available which could be broadly grouped into the following categories:
`star` Natural/Traditional

`star` Barrier

`star` IUDs

`star` Oral contraceptives

`star` Injectables

`star` Implants and Surgical methods.


`star` They work on the principle of `color{Violet}"avoiding"` chances of `color{Violet}"ovum and sperms"` `color{Violet}"meeting"`.

`star` As no medicines or devices are used in these methods, `color{Violet}"side effects"` are almost `color{Violet}"nil"`.

`star` `color{Violet}"Chances of failure"`, though, of these methods are also `color{Violet}"high"`.

`star` They can be carried out by various means describes below.

● `color{Brown}"Periodic abstinence"`:
`star` It is one such method in which the couples avoid or `color{"Violet}"abstain from coitus"` from day `color{Violet}"10 to 17"` of the menstrual cycle when `color{Violet}"ovulation"` could be expected.

`star` As chances of fertilisation are very high during this period, it is called the `color{Violet}"fertile period"`. Therefore, by abstaining from coitus during this period, `color{Violet}"conception"` could be `color{Violet}"prevented"`.

● `color{Brown}"Withdrawal or Coitus interruptus"` :
`star` It is another method in which the male partner `color{Violet}"withdraws"` his penis from the vagina just before ejaculation so as to `color{Violet}"avoid insemination"`.

● `color{Brown}"Lactational Amenorrhea"`:
`star` Such (`color{Violet}"absence of menstruation"`) method is based on the fact that ovulation and therefore the cycle do not occur during the period of `color{Violet}"intense lactation"` following parturition.

`star` Therefore, as long as the mother `color{Violet}"breast-feeds"` the child fully, chances of conception are almost `color{Violet}"nil"`.

`star`However, this method has been reported to be effective only upto a maximum `color{Violet}"period of six months"` following parturition.


`star` In this, the ovum and sperms are `color{Violet}"prevented"` from `color{Violet}"physically meeting"` with the help of barriers.

`star` Such methods are available for both males and females.

● `color{Brown}"Condoms"`:
`star` These are barriers made of `color{Violet}"thin rubber"`/ `color{Violet}"latex sheath"`.

`star` They are used to `color{Violet}"cover the penis"` in the male or vagina and cervix in the female, just before coitus so that the `color{Violet}"ejaculated semen"` would not enter into the female reproductive tract.

`star` This can `color{Violet}"prevent conception"`.

E.g.: `color{Violet}"Nirodh"` is a popular brand of `color{Violet}"condom"` for the `color{Violet}"male"`.

`star` `color{Violet}"Use of condoms"` has increased in recent years due to its additional benefit of protecting the user from `color{Violet}"contracting STDs"` and AIDS.

`star` Both the male and the female condoms are `color{Violet}"disposable"`, can be `color{Violet}"self-inserted"` and thereby gives privacy to the user.

● `color{Brown}"Diaphragms, cervical caps and vaults"`:
`star` These are also barriers made of `color{Violet}"rubber"` that are inserted into the female reproductive tract to `color{Violet}"cover the cervix"` during coitus.

`star` They `color{Violet}"prevent conception"` by `color{Violet}"blocking the entry"` of sperms through the cervix.

`star` They are `color{Violet}"reusable"`.

`star` `color{Violet}"Spermicidal creams"`, `color{Violet}"jellies"` and `color{Violet}"foams"` are usually used along with these barriers to `color{Violet}"increase"` their contraceptive efficiency.