`star` Use and Side effects of contraceptives
`star` Surgical methods
`star` Injections and Implants
`star` Oral contraceptives
`star` Intra Uterine Devices (IUDs)


● These devices are `color{Violet}"inserted"` by doctors or expert nurses in the `color{Violet}"uterus through vagina"`.

● These Intra Uterine Devices are presently available as:
`star` The `color{Violet}"non-medicated"` IUDs E.g., Lippes loop

`star` `color{Violet}"Copper releasing"` IUDs E.g., CuT, Cu7, Multiload 375

`star` The `color{Violet}"hormone releasing"` IUDs E.g., Progestasert, LNG-20.

● IUDs increase `color{Violet}"phagocytosis of sperms"` within the uterus and the `color{Violet}"Cu ions"` released suppress `color{Violet}"sperm motility"` and the `color{Violet}"fertilising capacity"` of sperms.

● The `color{Violet}"hormone releasing IUDs"`, in addition, make the uterus unsuitable for implantation and the `color{Violet}"cervix hostile"` to the sperms.

● IUDs are `color{Violet}"ideal contraceptives"` for the females who want to `color{Violet}"delay"` pregnancy and/or space children.

● It is one of most `color{Violet}"widely accepted"` methods of contraception in `color{Violet}"India"`.


● Oral administration of small doses of either0`color{Violet}" progestogens"` or `color{Violet}"progestogen–estrogen"` combinations is another contraceptive method used by the `color{Violet}"females"`.

● They are used in the form of `color{Violet}"tablets"` and hence are popularly called the `color{Violet}"pills"`.

● Pills have to be taken daily for a `color{Violet}"period of 21 days"` starting preferably within the `color{Violet}"first five days"` of menstrual cycle.

● After a `color{Violet}"gap of 7 days"` (during which menstruation occurs) it has to be repeated in the `color{Violet}"same pattern"` till the female desires to prevent conception.

● They `color{Violet}"inhibit ovulation"` and `color{Violet}"implantation"` as well as alter the quality of `color{Violet}"cervical mucus"` to prevent/ retard entry of sperms.

● Pills are `color{Violet}"very effective"` with lesser side effects and are `color{Violet}"well accepted"` by the females.

E.g.: `color{Violet}"Saheli"` –the new `color{Violet}"oral contraceptive"` for the females contains a `color{Violet}"non-steroidal preparation"`.

`star` It is a `color{Violet}"‘once a week’"`pill with very few side effects and high contraceptive value.


● `color{Violet}"Progestogens"` alone or in combination with `color{Violet}"estrogen"` can also be used by females as `color{Violet}"injections or implants"` under the skin.

● Their mode of action is similar to that of `color{Violet}"pills"` and their `color{Violet}"effective periods"` are much longer.

● Administration of `color{Violet}"progestogens"` or `color{Violet}"progestogen-estrogen"` combinations or IUDs within `color{Violet}"72 hours"` of coitus, have been found to be very effective as `color{Violet}"emergency contraceptives"`.

● They could be used to `color{Violet}"avoid possible pregnancy"` due to rape or casual unprotected intercourse.


● `color{Violet}"Surgical methods"`, also called `color{Violet}"sterilisation"`, are generally advised for the `color{Violet}"male/female"` partner as a terminal method to prevent any more pregnancies.

● Surgical intervention blocks `color{Violet}"gamete transport"` and thereby `color{Violet}"prevent conception"`.

● Sterilisation procedure in the male is called `color{Violet}"vasectomy"` and that in the female, `color{Violet}"tubectomy’"`

● In `color{Violet}"vasectomy"`, a small part of the `color{Violet}"vas deferens"` is removed or tied up through a small `color{Violet}"incision"` on the `color{Violet}"scrotum"`.

● In `color{Violet}"tubectomy"`, a small part of the `color{Violet}"fallopian tube"` is removed or tied up through a `color{Violet}"small incision"` in the `color{Violet}"abdomen"` or through `color{Violet}"vagina"`.

● These techniques are `color{Violet}"highly effective"` but their `color{Violet}"reversibility"` is very poor.


● It needs to be emphasised that the selection of a suitable contraceptive method and its use should always be undertaken in `color{Violet}"consultation"` with `color{Violet}"qualified medical professionals"`.

● One must also remember that contraceptives are `color{Violet}"not regular requirements"` for the maintenance of reproductive health.

● In fact, they are practiced against a `color{Violet}"natural reproductive event"`, i.e., conception/pregnancy.

● One is forced to use these methods either to prevent pregnancy or to delay or space pregnancy due to personal reasons.

● No doubt, the widespread use of these methods has a significant role in checking `color{Violet}"uncontrolled growth of population"`.

● Their possible ill-effects, though not very significant, should not be totally ignored, which include:

`star` `color{Violet}"Nausea"`

`star` `color{Violet}"Abdominal pain"`

`star` `color{Violet}"Breakthrough Bleeding"`

`star` `color{Violet}"Irregular menstrual bleeding"`

`star` `color{Violet}"Even breast cancer"`