`star` Infertility
`star` In Vitro and In Vivo Fertilisation
`star` GIFT and ICSI
`star` Arificial Insemination
`star` Disadvantages


● A large number of couples all over the world including India are `color{Violet}"infertile"`, i.e., they are `color{Violet}"unable to produce"` children inspite of `color{Violet}"unprotected"` sexual co-habitation.

● `color{Brownt}"Reasons"`: The reasons for this could be many–`color{Violet}"physical"`, `color{Violet}"congenital"`, `color{Violet}"diseases"`, `color{Violet}"drugs"`, `color{Violet}"immunological"` or even `color{Violet}"psychological"`.

● In India, often the `color{Violet}"female is blamed"` for the couple being childless, but more often than not, the problem lies in the `color{Violet}"male partner"`.

● `color{Violet}"Specialised"` health care units (`color{Violet}"infertility clinics"`, etc.) could help in diagnosis and corrective treatment of some of these disorders and enable these couples to have children.

● However, where such corrections are not possible, the couples could be assisted to have children through certain `color{Violet}"special techniques"` commonly known as `color{Violet}"Assisted reproductive technologies"` (`color{Violet}"ART"`).


● `color{Violet}"In vitro fertilisation"` (IVF–fertilisation outside the body in almost similar conditions as that in the body) followed by `color{Violet}"embryo transfer"` (ET) is one of such methods.

● In this method, popularly known as `color{Violet}"test tube baby programme"`, ova from the wife/donor (female) and sperms from the husband/donor (male) are collected.

● They are then `color{Violet}"induced"` to form `color{Violet}"zygote"` under simulated conditions in the laboratory.

● The zygote or `color{Violet}"early embryos"` (with upto `color{Violet}"8 blastomeres"`) could then be transferred into the

`star` Fallopian tube (`color{Violet}"ZIFT"`–`color{Violet}"zygote intra fallopian transfer"`) and embryos with more than 8 blastomeres,

`star` Uterus (`color{Violet}"IUT"` – `color{Violet}"intra uterine transfer"`),to complete its further development.

● Embryos formed by `color{Violet}"in-vivo fertilisation"` (fusion of gametes within the female) also could be used for such transfer to assist those females who cannot conceive.


● Transfer of an ovum collected from a donor into the fallopian tube (`color{Violet}"GIFT"` – `color{Violet}"gamete intra fallopian transfer"`) of another female who cannot produce one, but can provide suitable environment for fertilisation and further development is another method attempted.

● `color{Violet}"Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection"` (`color{Violet}"ICSI"`) is another specialised procedure to form an embryo
in the laboratory in which a sperm is directly injected into the ovum.


● Infertility cases either due to inability of the `color{Violet}"male"` partner to `color{Violet}"inseminate"` the female or due to very `color{Violet}"low sperm counts"` in the ejaculates, could be corrected by `color{Violet}"artificial insemination"` (AI) technique.

● In this technique, the semen collected either from the husband or a healthy donor is `color{Violet}"artificially introduced"` either into the `color{Violet}"vagina"` or into the uterus (`color{Violet}"IUI""` – `color{Violet}"intra-uterine insemination"`) of the female.


● Though options are many, all these techniques require extremely `color{Violet}"high precision handling"` by specialised professionals and `color{Violet}"expensive instrumentation"`.

● Therefore, these facilities are presently available only in very `color{Violet}"few centres"` in the country.

● Obviously their benefits is `color{Violet}"affordable"` to only a limited number of people.

● `color{Violet}"Emotional"`, `color{Violet}"religious"` and `color{Violet}"social factors"` are also deterrents in the adoption of these methods.

● Since the ultimate aim of all these procedures is to have children, in India, our laws permit `color{Violet}"legal adoption"` of orphaned and destitute children, who would probably `color{Violet}"not survive"` till maturity, unless taken care of.

● It is as yet, one of the `color{Violet}"best methods"` for couples looking for parenthood.