Biology HUMAN GENOME PROJECT

### KEY TOPICS

star Introduction
star total extent of the Project
star Goals of HGP
star Contributions to HGP
star Importance of HGP

### INTRODUCTION

● We have learnt that it is the color{Violet}"sequence of bases" in DNA that determines the color{Violet}"genetic information" of a given organism.

● In other words, color{Violet}"genetic make-up" of an organism or an individual lies in the DNA sequences.

● If color{Violet}"two individuals differ", then their DNA sequences should also be color{Violet}"different", at least at color{Violet}"some places".

● These assumptions led to the color{Violet}"quest" of finding out the color{Violet}"complete DNA sequence" of human genome.

● A very color{Violet}"ambitious project" of sequencing human genome was launched in the year color{Violet}"1990", With the establishment of :

star color{Violet}"Genetic engineering techniques" where it was possible to isolate and clone any piece of DNA

star Availability of color{Violet}"simple and fast techniques" for determining DNA sequences.

● color{brown}"Human Genome Project (HGP)" was called a color{Violet}"mega project".

### TOTAL EXTENT OF THE PROJECT

star color{brown}"Cost of the Project":

● Human genome is said to have color{Violet}"approximately 3 x 10^9 bp", and if the cost of sequencing required is color{Violet}"US \$ 3 per bp" (the estimated cost in the beginning), the total estimated cost of the project would be approximately color{Violet}"9 billion US dollars".

star color{Brown}"Information content":

● Further, if the obtained sequences were to be stored in color{Violet}"typed form in books", and if each page of the book contained color{Violet}"1000 letters" and each book contained color{Violet}"1000 pages", then color{Violet}"3300 such books" would be required to store the information of color{Violet}"DNA sequence" from a color{Violet}"single human cell".

● The enormous amount of data expected to be generated also necessitated the use of color{Violet}"high speed computational devices" for color{Violet}"data storage" and color{Violet}"retrieval", and color{Violet}"analysis".

● color{Violet}"HGP" was closely associated with the rapid development of a new area in biology called as color{Violet}"Bioinformatics".

### GOALS OF HGP

● Some of the color{Violet}"important goals" of HGP were as follows:

(i) Identify all the approximately color{Violet}"20,000-25,000 genes" in human DNA

(ii) Determine the sequences of the color{Violet}"3 billion chemical base pairs" that make up human DNA

(iiii) Store this information in color{Violet}"databases"

(iv) Improve tools for color{Violet}"data analysis"

(v) color{Violet}"Transfer related technologies" to other sectors, such as industries

(vi) Address the color{Violet}"ethical, legal, and social issues" (color{Violet}"ELSI") that may arise from the project.

### CONTRIBUTIONS TO HGP

● The Human Genome Project was a color{Violet}"13-year project"

● It was coordinated by the color{Violet}"U.S. Department of Energy" and the color{Violet}"National Institute of Health".

● During the early years of the HGP, the color{Violet}"Wellcome Trust (U.K.)" became a color{Violet}"major partner"; additional contributions came from color{Violet}"Japan", color{Violet}"France", color{Violet}"Germany", color{Violet}"China" and others.

● The project was completed in color{Violet}"2003".

### IMPORTANCE OF HGP

● Knowledge about the color{Violet}"effects of DNA variations" among individuals can lead to revolutionary new ways to color{Violet}"diagnose", color{Violet}"treat and someday prevent" the thousands of disorders that affect human beings.

● Besides providing clues to understanding human biology, learning about color{Violet}"non-human organisms" DNA sequences can lead to an understanding of their color{Violet}"natural capabilities" that can be applied toward solving challenges in

star color{Brown}"Health care"
star color{Brown}"Agriculture"
star color{Brown}"Energy production"
star color{Brown}"Environmental remediation"

● Many non-human model organisms have also been sequenced, such as:

star color{Brown}"Bacteria"
star color{Brown}"Yeast"
star color{Brown}"Caenorhabditis elegans" (a free living non-pathogenic nematode),
star color{Brown}"Drosophila" (the fruit fly),
star Plants (color{Brown}"rice and Arabidopsis"), etc.