`star` Introduction
`star` total extent of the Project
`star` Goals of HGP
`star` Contributions to HGP
`star` Importance of HGP


● We have learnt that it is the `color{Violet}"sequence of bases"` in DNA that determines the `color{Violet}"genetic information"` of a given organism.

● In other words, `color{Violet}"genetic make-up"` of an organism or an individual lies in the DNA sequences.

● If `color{Violet}"two individuals differ"`, then their DNA sequences should also be `color{Violet}"different"`, at least at `color{Violet}"some places"`.

● These assumptions led to the `color{Violet}"quest"` of finding out the `color{Violet}"complete DNA sequence" of human genome.

● A very `color{Violet}"ambitious project"` of sequencing human genome was launched in the year `color{Violet}"1990"`, With the establishment of :

`star` `color{Violet}"Genetic engineering techniques"` where it was possible to isolate and clone any piece of DNA

`star` Availability of `color{Violet}"simple and fast techniques"` for determining DNA sequences.

● `color{brown}"Human Genome Project (HGP)"` was called a `color{Violet}"mega project"`.


`star` `color{brown}"Cost of the Project"`:

● Human genome is said to have `color{Violet}"approximately 3 x `10^9` bp"`, and if the cost of sequencing required is `color{Violet}"US $ 3 per bp"` (the estimated cost in the beginning), the total estimated cost of the project would be approximately `color{Violet}"9 billion US dollars"`.

`star` `color{Brown}"Information content"`:

● Further, if the obtained sequences were to be stored in `color{Violet}"typed form in books"`, and if each page of the book contained `color{Violet}"1000 letters"` and each book contained `color{Violet}"1000 pages"`, then `color{Violet}"3300 such books"` would be required to store the information of `color{Violet}"DNA sequence"` from a `color{Violet}"single human cell"`.

● The enormous amount of data expected to be generated also necessitated the use of `color{Violet}"high speed computational devices"` for `color{Violet}"data storage"` and `color{Violet}"retrieval"`, and `color{Violet}"analysis"`.

● `color{Violet}"HGP"` was closely associated with the rapid development of a new area in biology called as `color{Violet}"Bioinformatics"`.


● Some of the `color{Violet}"important goals"` of HGP were as follows:

(i) Identify all the approximately `color{Violet}"20,000-25,000 genes"` in human DNA

(ii) Determine the sequences of the `color{Violet}"3 billion chemical base pairs"` that make up human DNA

(iiii) Store this information in `color{Violet}"databases"`

(iv) Improve tools for `color{Violet}"data analysis"`

(v) `color{Violet}"Transfer related technologies"` to other sectors, such as industries

(vi) Address the `color{Violet}"ethical, legal, and social issues"` (`color{Violet}"ELSI"`) that may arise from the project.


● The Human Genome Project was a `color{Violet}"13-year project"`

● It was coordinated by the `color{Violet}"U.S. Department of Energy"` and the `color{Violet}"National Institute of Health"`.

● During the early years of the HGP, the `color{Violet}"Wellcome Trust (U.K.)"` became a `color{Violet}"major partner"`; additional contributions came from `color{Violet}"Japan"`, `color{Violet}"France"`, `color{Violet}"Germany"`, `color{Violet}"China"` and others.

● The project was completed in `color{Violet}"2003"`.


● Knowledge about the `color{Violet}"effects of DNA variations" among individuals can lead to revolutionary new ways to `color{Violet}"diagnose"`, `color{Violet}"treat and someday prevent"` the thousands of disorders that affect human beings.

● Besides providing clues to understanding human biology, learning about `color{Violet}"non-human organisms"` DNA sequences can lead to an understanding of their `color{Violet}"natural capabilities"` that can be applied toward solving challenges in

`star` `color{Brown}"Health care"`
`star` `color{Brown}"Agriculture"`
`star` `color{Brown}"Energy production"`
`star` `color{Brown}"Environmental remediation"`

● Many non-human model organisms have also been sequenced, such as:

`star` `color{Brown}"Bacteria"`
`star` `color{Brown}"Yeast"`
`star` `color{Brown}"Caenorhabditis elegans"` (a free living non-pathogenic nematode),
`star` `color{Brown}"Drosophila"` (the fruit fly),
`star` Plants (`color{Brown}"rice and Arabidopsis"`), etc.