Microbes in production of
`star` Fermented Beverages
`star` Antibiotics
`star` Chemicals, Enzymes and other Bioactive Molecules


โ— Microbes especially `color{Violet}"yeasts"` have been used from time immemorial for the production of `color{Violet}"beverages"` like wine, beer, whisky, brandy or rum.

โ— For this purpose the same `color{Violet}"yeast ๐˜š๐˜ข๐˜ค๐˜ค๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ๐˜บ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ด ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ท๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ช๐˜ข๐˜ฆ"` used for bread-making and commonly called `color{Violet}"brewerโ€™s yeast"`, is used for fermenting `color{Violet}"malted cereals"` and `color{Violet}"fruit juices"`, to produce ethanol.

โ— Depending on the type of the `color{Violet}"raw material"` used for fermentation and the `color{Violet}"type of processing"` (with or without distillation), different types of `color{Violet}"alcoholic drinks"` are obtained.

โ— `color{Brown}"Wine and beer"` are produced `color{Violet}"without distillation"` whereas `color{Brown}"whisky, brandy and rum"` are produced by `color{Violet}"distillation"` of the fermented broth.


โ— `color{Violet}"Antibiotics"` produced by microbes are regarded as one of the `color{Violet}"most significant discoveries"` of the twentieth century and have greatly contributed towards the `color{Violet}"welfare"` of the human society.

โ— `color{Violet}"Anti"` is a Greek word that means `color{Violet}"against"`, and `color{Violet}"bio"` means `color{Violet}"life"`, together they mean `color{Violet}"against life"` (in the context of disease causing organisms); whereas with reference to `color{Violet}"human beings"`, they are `color{Violet}"pro life"` and not against.

โ— Antibiotics are `color{Violet}"chemical substances"`, which are produced by some microbes and can `color{Violet}"kill or retard the growth"` of other (disease-causing) microbes.

โ— `color{Violet}"Penicillin"` was the first antibiotic to be discovered, and it was a `color{Violet}"chance discovery"`.

โ— `color{Violet}"Alexander Fleming"` while working on `color{Violet}"๐˜š๐˜ต๐˜ข๐˜ฑ๐˜ฉ๐˜บ๐˜ญ๐˜ฐ๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ค๐˜ค๐˜ช "` bacteria, once observed a mould growing in one of his unwashed culture plates around which `color{Violet}"๐˜š๐˜ต๐˜ข๐˜ฑ๐˜ฉ๐˜บ๐˜ญ๐˜ฐ๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ค๐˜ค๐˜ช "`could not grow.

โ— He found out that it was due to a chemical `color{Violet}"produced by the mould"` and he named it `color{Violet}"Penicillin"` after the mould `color{Violet}"๐˜—๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ค๐˜ช๐˜ญ๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ถ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ต๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ฎ"`.

โ— However, its full potential as an effective antibiotic was established much later by `color{Violet}"Ernest Chain"` and `color{Violet}"Howard Florey"`.

โ— This antibiotic was extensively used to treat `color{Violet}"American soldiers"` wounded in `color{Violet}"World War I"`I.

โ— `color{Violet}"Fleming"`, `color{Violet}"Chain"` and `color{Violet}"Florey"` were awarded the `color{Violet}"Nobel Prize"` in 1945, for this discovery.

โ— After Penicillin, other `color{Violet}"antibiotics"` were also `color{Violet}"purified"` from other microbes

โ— Antibiotics have greatly improved our capacity to `color{Violet}"treat deadly diseases"` such as plague, whooping cough (kali khansi ), diphtheria (gal ghotu) and leprosy (kusht rog), which used to`color{Violet}" kill millions"` all over the globe.

โ— Today, we cannot imagine a `color{Violet}"world without antibiotics"`.


โ— Microbes are also used for commercial and industrial production of certain chemicals like `color{Violet}"organic acids"`, `color{Violet}"alcohols"` and `color{Violet}"enzymes"`.

`star` `color{Brown}"Acids"`:
Examples of acid producers are:

โ— `color{Violet}"๐˜ˆ๐˜ด๐˜ฑ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜จ๐˜ช๐˜ญ๐˜ญ๐˜ถ๐˜ด ๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜จ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ"` (a fungus) of citric acid

โ— `color{Violet}"๐˜ˆ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ๐˜ฃ๐˜ข๐˜ค๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ข๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ต๐˜ช"` (a bacterium) of acetic acid

โ— `color{Violet}"๐˜Š๐˜ญ๐˜ฐ๐˜ด๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ฅ๐˜ช๐˜ถ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ฃ๐˜ถ๐˜ต๐˜บ๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ค๐˜ถ๐˜ฎ"` (a bacterium) of butyric acid

โ— `color{Violet}"๐˜“๐˜ข๐˜ค๐˜ต๐˜ฐ๐˜ฃ๐˜ข๐˜ค๐˜ช๐˜ญ๐˜ญ๐˜ถ๐˜ด"` (a bacterium) of lactic acid.

`star` `color{Brown}"Alcohol"`:

โ— Yeast (`color{Violet}"๐˜š๐˜ข๐˜ค๐˜ค๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ๐˜บ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ด ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ท๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ช๐˜ข๐˜ฆ"`) is used for commercial production of ethanol.

`star` `color{Brown}"Enzymes"`:

โ— `color{Violet}"Microbes"` are also used for production of enzymes.

โ— `color{Violet}"Lipases"` are used in `color{Violet}"detergent formulations"` and are helpful in `color{Violet}"removing oily stains"` from the laundry.

โ— The `color{Violet}"bottled fruit juices"` bought from the market are `color{Violet}"clearer"` as compared to those made at home.

โ— This is because the bottled juices are `color{Violet}"clarified"` by the use of `color{Violet}"pectinases"` and `color{Violet}"proteases"`.

`star` `color{Brown}"Therapeutic Agents"`

โ— `color{Violet}"Streptokinase"` produced by the bacterium `color{Violet}"๐˜š๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ค๐˜ค๐˜ถ๐˜ด"` and modified by genetic engineering is used as a โ€˜clot busterโ€™ for `color{Violet}"removing clots"` from the blood vessels of patients who have undergone `color{Violet}"myocardial infraction"` leading to heart attack.

โ— Another bioactive molecule, `color{Violet}"cyclosporin A"`, that is used as an `color{Violet}"immunosuppressive agent"` in organ-transplant patients, is produced by the fungus `color{Violet}"๐˜›๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ค๐˜ฉ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฎ๐˜ข ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜บ๐˜ด๐˜ฑ๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ๐˜ถ๐˜ฎ"`.

โ— `color{Violet}"Statins"` produced by the yeast `color{Violet}"๐˜”๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ข๐˜ด๐˜ค๐˜ถ๐˜ด ๐˜ฑ๐˜ถ๐˜ณ๐˜ฑ๐˜ถ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ถ๐˜ด"` have been commercialised as `color{Violet}"blood-cholesterol lowering"` agents.

It acts by `color{Violet}"competitively inhibiting"` the enzyme responsible for `color{Violet}"synthesis of cholesterol"`.