`star` Helminth Disease : Elephantiasis
`star` Fungal Disease : Ringworm
`star` Prevention of Infectious diseases
`star` Therapeutic agents of Prevention


โ— `color{brown}"๐˜ž๐˜ถ๐˜ค๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ข"` (`color{Violet}"๐˜ž. ๐˜ฃ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง๐˜ต๐˜ช"` ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ `color{Violet}"๐˜ž. ๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ข๐˜บ๐˜ช"`), the filarial worms cause a slowly developing `color{Violet}"chronic inflammation"` of the organs in which they live for many years, usually the `color{Violet}"lymphatic vessels"` of the lower limbs and the disease is called `color{brown}"elephantiasis or filariasis"`.

โ— The `color{Violet}"genital organs"` are also often affected, resulting in `color{Violet}"gross deformities"`.

โ— The `color{Violet}"pathogens"` are transmitted to a healthy person through the `color{Violet}"bite"` by the `color{Violet}"female mosquito vectors"`.


โ— Many fungi belonging to the genera `color{brown}"๐˜”๐˜ช๐˜ค๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ด๐˜ฑ๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ๐˜ถ๐˜ฎ, ๐˜›๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ค๐˜ฉ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฉ๐˜บ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ"` ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ `color{brown}"๐˜Œ๐˜ฑ๐˜ช๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฉ๐˜บ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ"` are responsible for `color{brown}"ringworms"` which is one of the most common infectious diseases in man.

โ— Appearance of `color{Violet}"dry, scaly lesions"` on various parts of the body such as `color{Violet}"skin, nails and scalp"` are the main symptoms of the disease.

โ— These lesions are accompanied by `color{Violet}"intense itching"`.

โ— `color{Violet}"Heat and moisture"` help these fungi to grow, which makes them thrive in `color{Violet}"skin folds"` such as those in the groin or between the toes.

โ— Ringworms are generally acquired from `color{Violet}"soil"` or by using `color{Violet}"towels"`, `color{Violet}"clothes"` or even the`color{Violet}" comb of infected individuals"`.


โ— Maintenance of `color{Violet}"personal and public hygiene"` is very important for prevention and control of many infectious diseases.

โ— Measures for personal hygiene include keeping the `color{Violet}"body clean"`; consumption of `color{Violet}"clean drinking water"`, `color{Violet}"food"`, vegetables, fruits, etc.

โ— Public hygiene includes `color{Violet}"proper disposal"` of `color{Violet}"waste and excreta"`; `color{Violet}"periodic cleaning"` and `color{Violet}"disinfection of water reservoirs"`, pools, cesspools and tanks and observing standard practices of hygiene in public catering.

โ— These measures are particularly essential where the infectious agents are transmitted through food and water such as `color{Violet}"typhoid, amoebiasis"` `color{Violet}"and ascariasis"`.

โ— In cases of air-borne diseases such as `color{Violet}"pneumonia and"` `color{Violet}"common cold"`, in addition to the above measures, `color{Violet}"close contact"` with the infected persons or their belongings should be avoided.

โ— For diseases such as `color{Violet}"malaria and filariasis"` that are transmitted through `color{Violet}"insect vectors"`, the most important measure is to `color{Violet}"control or eliminate"` the vectors and their breeding places.

โ— This can be achieved by `color{Violet}"avoiding stagnation"` of water in and around residential areas, `color{Violet}"regular cleaning"` of household coolers, use of `color{Violet}"mosquito nets"`, introducing fishes like `color{Violet}"๐˜Ž๐˜ข๐˜ฎ๐˜ฃ๐˜ถ๐˜ด๐˜ช๐˜ข"` in ponds that feed on mosquito larvae, spraying of insecticides in ditches, drainage areas and swamps, etc.

โ— In addition, doors and windows should be `color{Violet}"provided with wire mesh"` to prevent the entry of mosquitoes.

โ— Such precautions have become all the more important especially in the light of recent widespread incidences of the vector-borne (`color{Violet}"๐˜ˆ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด mosquitoes"`) diseases like `color{Violet}"dengue and chikungunya"` in many parts of India.


โ— The advancements made in `color{Violet}"biological science"` have armed us to effectively deal with many infectious diseases.

โ— The use of `color{Violet}"vaccines"` and `color{Violet}"immunisation programmes"` have enabled us to completely eradicate a deadly disease like `color{Violet}"smallpox"`.

โ— A large number of other infectious diseases like `color{Violet}"polio, diphtheria"`, `color{Violet}"pneumonia and tetanus"` have been controlled to a large extent by the use of vaccines.

โ— `color{Violet}"Biotechnology"` is at the verge of making available newer and safer vaccines.

โ— Discovery of `color{Violet}"antibiotics"` and various `color{Violet}"other drugs"` has also enabled us to effectively treat infectious diseases.