`star` Animal Husbandry
`star` Dairy Farm Management
`star` Poultry Farm Management


● With ever -increasing population of the world, `color{Violet}"enhancement of food production"` is a major necessity.

● Biological principles as applied to `color{Violet}"animal husbandry"` and `color{Violet}"plant breeding"` have a major role in our efforts to increase food production.

● Several new techniques like `color{Violet}"embryo transfer technology"` and `color{Violet}"tissue culture"` techniques are going to play a pivotal role in further enhancing food production.

● `color{Brown}"Animal husbandry"` is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock.

● As such it is a `color{Violet}"vital skill for farmers"` and is as much science as it is `color{Violet}"art"`.

● Animal husbandry deals with the `color{Violet}"care and breeding of livestock"` like buffaloes, cows, pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, camels, goats, etc., that are useful to humans.

● Extended, it includes `color{Violet}"poultry farming"` and `color{Violet}"fisheries"`.

● Fisheries include `color{Violet}"rearing, catching, selling"`, etc., of fish, molluscs (shell-fish) and crustaceans (prawns, crabs, etc.).

● Since time immemorial, `color{Violet}"animals"` like bees, silk-worm, prawns, crabs, fishes, birds, pigs, cattle, sheep and camels have been `color{Violet}"used by humans"` for `color{Violet}"products"` like milk, eggs, meat, wool, silk, honey, etc.

● It is estimated that more then `color{Violet}"70 per cent"` of the world livestock population is in `color{Violet}"India and China"`.

● However, it is surprising to note that the `color{Violet}"contribution to the"` `color{Violet}"world farm produce"` is only `color{Violet}"25 per cent"`, i.e., the productivity per unit is very low.

● Hence, in addition to `color{Violet}"conventional practices"` of animal breeding and care, `color{Violet}"newer technologies"` also have to be applied to achieve improvement in quality and productivity.


● `color{Brown}"Dairying"` is the management of animals for `color{Violet}"milk"` and its products for `color{Violet}"human consumption"`.

● In `color{Violet}"dairy farm management"`, we deal with processes and systems that increase yield and improve `color{Violet}"quality of milk"`.

● Milk yield is primarily dependent on the `color{Violet}"quality of breeds"` in the farm.

● Selection of good breeds having `color{Violet}"high yielding potential"` (under the climatic conditions of the area), combined with `color{Violet}"resistance to diseases"` is very important.

● For the yield potential to be realised the cattle have to be `color{Violet}"well looked after"` – they have to be housed well, should have adequate water and be `color{Violet}"maintained disease free"`.

● The feeding of cattle should be carried out in a `color{Violet}"scientific manner"` – with special emphasis on the `color{Violet}"quality
and quantity"` of fodder.

● Besides, `color{Violet}"stringent cleanliness"` and`color{Violet}"hygiene"` (both of the cattle and the handlers) are of paramount importance while milking, storage and transport of the milk and its products.

● Nowadays, of course, much of these processes have become `color{Violet}"mechanised"`, which reduces chance of `color{Violet}"direct contact"` of the produce with the handler.

● Ensuring these stringent measures would of course, require `color{Violet}"regular inspections"`, with proper `color{Violet}"record keeping"`.

● It would also help to `color{Violet}"identify and rectify"` the problems as early as possible.

● Regular visits by a `color{Violet}"veterinary doctor"` would be mandatory.


● `color{Brown}"Poultry"` is the class of `color{Violet}"domesticated fowl"` (birds) used for food or for their eggs.

● They typically include `color{Violet}"chicken and ducks"`, and sometimes `color{Violet}"turkey and geese"`.

● The word poultry is often used to refer to the `color{Violet}"meat of only"` `color{Violet}"these birds"`, but in a more general sense it may refer to the `color{Violet}"meat of other birds"` too.

● As in dairy farming, selection of `color{Violet}"disease free"` and `color{Violet}"suitable breeds"`, proper and safe `color{Violet}"farm conditions"`, proper `color{Violet}"feed and water"`, and `color{Violet}"hygiene"` and `color{Violet}"health care"` are important components of poultry farm management.