`star` Artificial Insemination
`star` Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology
`star` Bee keeping
`star` Fisheries


● Controlled breeding experiments are carried out using `color{Brown}"artificial insemination"`.

● The `color{Violet}"semen"` is collected from the `color{Violet}"male"` that is chosen as a parent and `color{Violet}"injected"` into the `color{Violet}"reproductive tract"` of the selected female by the breeder.

● The semen may be `color{Violet}"used immediately"` or can be `color{Violet}"frozen"` and used at a later date.

● It can also be `color{Violet}"transported in a frozen form"` to where the female is housed.

● Artificial insemination helps us `color{Violet}"overcome several problems"` of normal matings.


● Often, the `color{Violet}"success rate"` of crossing mature male and female animals is `color{Violet}"fairly low"` even though artificial insemination is carried out.

● To improve chances of `color{Violet}"successful production"` `color{Violet}"of hybrids"`, other means are also used.

● `color{Brown}"Multiple Ovulation Embryo"` `color{Brown}"Transfer Technology (MOET)"` is one such programme for `color{Violet}"herd improvement"`.

● In this method, a cow is administered hormones, with `color{Violet}"FSH-like activity"`, to induce `color{Violet}"follicular maturation"` and `color{Violet}"super ovulation"` – instead of one egg, which they normally yield per cycle, they produce `color{Violet}"6-8 eggs"`.

● The animal is either mated with an `color{Violet}"elite bull"` or `color{Violet}"artificially inseminated"`.

● The fertilised eggs at `color{Violet}"8–32 cells stages"`, are recovered `color{Violet}"nonsurgically"` and transferred to `color{Violet}"surrogate mothers"`.

● The genetic mother is available for `color{Violet}"another round"` of super ovulation.

● This technology has been demonstrated for `color{Violet}"cattle, sheep, rabbits,"` `color{Violet}"buffaloes, mares"`, etc.

● `color{Violet}"High milk yielding"` breeds of females and high quality (`color{Violet}"lean meat"` `color{Violet}"with less lipid"`) meat-yielding bulls have been bred successfully to `color{Violet}"increase herd size"` in a short time.


● `color{Brown}"Bee-keeping or apiculture"` is the maintenance of hives of `color{Violet}"honeybees"` for the production of `color{Violet}"honey"`.

● It has been an age-old `color{Violet}"cottage industry"`.

● `color{Violet}"Honey"` is a food of `color{Violet}"high nutritive value"` and also finds use in the `color{Violet}"indigenous systems"` `color{Violet}"of medicine"`.

● `color{Violet}"Honeybee"` also produces `color{Violet}"beeswax"`, which finds many uses in industry, such as in the preparation of cosmetics and polishes of various kinds.

● The increased demand of honey has led to `color{Violet}"large-scale"` `color{Violet}"beekeeping practices"`; it has become an established income generating industry, whether practiced on a small or on a large scale.

● Bee-keeping can be practiced in any area where there are `color{Violet}"sufficient bee pastures"` of some wild shrubs, fruit orchards and cultivated crops.

● There are several `color{Violet}"species of honeybees"` which can be reared.

● Of these, the most common species is `color{Violet}"𝘈𝘱𝘪𝘴 𝘪𝘯𝘥𝘪𝘤𝘢"`.

● Beehives can be kept in `color{Violet}"one’s courtyard"`, on the `color{Violet}"verandah"` of the house or even on the roof.

● Bee-keeping is `color{Violet}"not labour-intensive"`.

● Bee-keeping though `color{Violet}"relatively easy"` does require some `color{Violet}"specialized knowledge"` and there are several organisations that teach bee-keeping.

● `color{Brown}"The following points are"` `color{Brown}"important for"` `color{Brown}"successful bee-keeping"`:

(i) Knowledge of the `color{Violet}"nature and habits"` of bees,

(ii) Selection of `color{Violet}"suitable location"` for keeping the beehives,

(iii) Catching and `color{Violet}"hiving of swarms"` (group of bees),

(iv) `color{Violet}"Management of beehives"` during different seasons, and

(v) Handling and collection of `color{Violet}"honey and of beeswax"`.

● Bees are the `color{Violet}"pollinators"` of many of our crop species such as `color{Violet}"sunflower"`, `color{Violet}"Brassica"`, `color{Violet}"apple"` and `color{Violet}"pear"`.

● Keeping beehives in crop fields during `color{Violet}"flowering period"` increases `color{Violet}"pollination efficiency"` and improves the `color{Violet}"yield"`–beneficial both from the point of view of crop yield and honey yield.