`star` Green Revolution
`star` Wheat and Rice
`star` Sugarcane
`star` Millets


● `color{Violet}"India"` is mainly an `color{Violet}"agricultural country"`.

● Agriculture accounts for approximately `color{Brown}"33 per cent"` of `color{Violet}"India’s GDP"` and employs nearly `color{Violet}"62 per cent"` of the `color{Brown}"population"`.

● `color{Violet}"After India’s independence"`, one of the main challenges facing the country was that of `color{Violet}"producing enough food"` for the increasing population.

● As only `color{Violet}"limited land"` is fit for cultivation, India has to strive to `color{Violet}"increase yields"` per unit area from existing farm land.

● The development of several `color{Violet}"high yielding varieties"` of wheat and rice in the `color{Violet}"mid-1960s"`, as a result of various `color{Violet}"plant breeding techniques"` led to dramatic increase in food production in our country.

● This phase is often referred to as the `color{Brown}"Green Revolution"`.


● During the period `color{Violet}"1960 to 2000"`, `color{Brown}"wheat"` production increased from `color{Violet}"11 million tones"` to `color{Violet}"75 million tonnes"` while `color{Brown}"rice production"` went up from `color{Violet}"35 million tonnes"` to `color{Violet}"89.5 million tonnes"`.

● This was due to the development of `color{Violet}"semi-dwarf varieties"` of `color{Violet}"wheat and rice"`.

● Nobel laureate `color{Brown}"Norman E. Borlaug"`, at International Centre for Wheat and Maize Improvement in Mexico, developed `color{Brown}"semi-dwarf wheat"`.

● In 1963, several varieties such as `color{Brown}"Sonalika"` and `color{Brown}"Kalyan Sona"`, which were `color{Violet}"high yielding"` and `color{Violet}"disease resistant"`, were introduced all over the wheat-growing belt of India.

● `color{Violet}"Semi-dwarf rice"` varieties were derived from `color{Brown}"IR-8"`, (developed at `color{Violet}"International Rice"` `color{Violet}"Research Institute"` (IRRI), Philippines) and `color{Brown}"Taichung Native-1"` (from `color{Violet}"Taiwan"`).

● The derivatives were introduced in 1966.

● Later `color{Violet}"better-yielding"` semi dwarf varieties `color{Brown}"Jaya"` and `color{Brown}"Ratna"` were developed in India.


● `color{Brown}"𝘚𝘢𝘤𝘤𝘩𝘢𝘳𝘶𝘮 𝘣𝘢𝘳𝘣𝘦𝘳𝘪"` was originally grown in `color{Violet}"north India"`, but had `color{Violet}"poor sugar content"` and `color{Violet}"yield"`.

● Tropical canes grown in `color{Violet}"south India"` `color{Brown}"𝘚𝘢𝘤𝘤𝘩𝘢𝘳𝘶𝘮 𝘰𝘧𝘧𝘪𝘤𝘪𝘯𝘢𝘳𝘶𝘮"` had `color{Violet}"thicker stems"` and `color{Violet}"higher sugar content"` but did not grow well in north India.

● These two species were `color{Violet}"successfully crossed"` to get sugar cane varieties combining the `color{Violet}"desirable qualities"` of high yield, thick stems, high sugar and ability to grow in the sugar cane areas of `color{Violet}"north India"`.


● `color{Violet}"Hybrid maize"`, `color{Violet}"jowar and bajra"` have been successfully developed in India.

● Hybrid breeding have led to the development of several `color{Violet}"high yielding"` varieties `color{Violet}"resistant to"` `color{Violet}"water stress"`.