`star` Ethical issues Regarding GMOs
`star` Patents
`star` Biopiracy


● The `color{violet}("manipulation of living organisms")` by the human race cannot go on any further, `color{violet}("without regulation")`.

● Some ethical standards are required to evaluate the `color{violet}("morality")` of all human activities that might help or `color{violet}("harm living organisms")`.

● Going beyond the `color{violet}("morality")` of such issues, the `color{violet}("biological significance")` of such things is also important.

● `color{violet}("Genetic modification of organisms")` can have unpredicatable results when such `color{violet}("organisms")` are introduced into the `color{violet}("ecosystem")`.

● Therefore, the Indian Government has set up organisations such as `color{violet}("GEAC (Genetic Engineering Approval Committee)")`, which will make decisions regarding the validity of GM research and the safety of introducing `color{violet}("GM-organisms")` for public services.

● The `color{violet}("modification/usage of living organisms")` for public services (as `color{violet}("food ")`and `color{violet}("medicine")` sources, for example) has also created problems with patents granted for the same.


● There is growing public anger that certain companies are being granted patents for `color{violet}("products and technologies")` that make use of the `color{violet}("genetic materials, plants and other biological")` resources that have long been identified, developed and used by `color{violet}("farmers and indigenous people")` of a specific region/country.

● `color{violet}("Rice")` is an important `color{violet}("food grain")`, the presence of which goes back thousands of years in Asia’s agricultural history.

● There are an estimated `color{violet}("200,000 varieties")` of `color{violet}("rice in India alone")`.

● The diversity of `color{violet}("rice in India")` is one of the `color{violet}("richest")` in the world.

● `color{violet}("Basmati rice")` is distinct for its unique `color{violet}("aroma and flavour")` and
`color{violet}("27 documented varieties")` of Basmati are grown in India.

● There is reference to `color{violet}("Basmati in ancient texts, folklore and poetry")`, as it has been grown for centuries.

● `color{violet}("In 1997")`, an American company got patent rights on
`color{violet}("Basmati rice")` through the US Patent and Trademark Office.

● This allowed the company to sell a `color{violet}("‘new’ variety of Basmati, in the US")` and abroad.

● This `color{violet}("‘new’ variety of Basmati")` had actually been derived from `color{violet}("Indian farmer’s varieties")`.

● `color{violet}("Indian Basmati")` was crossed with `color{violet}("semi-dwarf varieties")` and `color{violet}("claimed")` as an invention or a novelty.

● The patent extends to functional equivalents, implying that other people `color{violet}("selling Basmati rice")` could be restricted by the patent.

● Several attempts have also been made to patent uses, `color{violet}("products and processes")` based on `color{violet}("Indian traditional herbal medicines, e.g., turmeric neem")`.

● If we are not `color{violet}("vigilant")` and we do not immediately counter these patent applications, other countries/individuals may encash on our `color{violet}("rich legacy")` and we may not be able to do anything about it.


● `color{violet}("Biopiracy")` is the term used to refer to the use of
`color{violet}("bio-resources")` by multinational companies and other organisations without proper authorisation from
the countries and people concerned without compensatory payment.

● Most of the `color{violet}("industrialised nations")` are
`color{violet}("rich financially")` but poor in `color{violet}("biodiversity and traditional knowledge")`.

● In contrast the developing and the underdeveloped `color{violet}("world is rich in biodiversity")`
and `color{violet}("traditional knowledge")` related to bio-resources.

● `color{violet}("Traditional knowledge")` related to `color{violet}("bio-resources")` can be exploited to develop
modern applications and can also be used to save time,
effort and expenditure during their `color{violet}("commercialisation")`.

● There has been `color{violet}("growing realisation")` of the injustice, inadequate compensation and benefit sharing between developed and developing countries.

● Therefore, some nations are developing laws to prevent such unauthorised exploitation of their `color{violet}("bio-resources")` and `color{violet}("traditional knowledge")`.

● The `color{violet}("Indian Parliament")` has recently cleared the `color{violet}("second amendment of the Indian Patents Bill")`,
that takes such issues into consideration, `color{violet}("including patent terms emergency provisions")` and
`color{violet}("research and development initiative")`.