`star` Commensalism
`star` Mutualism
`star` Sexual Deceit


● This is the `color{violet}("interaction")` in which one species benefits and the other is `color{brown}("neither harmed nor benefited.")`

● An `color{brown}("orchid ")`growing as an `color{brown}("epiphyte")` on a `color{brown}("mango")` branch, and `color{brown}("barnacles ")` growing on the back of a `color{brown}("whale ")` benefit while neither the `color{violet}("mango tree")` nor the `color{violet}("whale derives")` any apparent benefit.

● The `color{brown}("cattle egret")` and `color{brown}("grazing cattle ")` in close association, a sight you are most likely to catch if you live in
`color{violet}("farmed rural areas")`, is a classic example of commensalism.

● The `color{violet}("egrets")` always forage close to where the `color{violet}("cattle are grazing")` because the `color(violet}("cattle")`, as they move, stir up and `color{violet}("flush out")` from the vegetation insects that otherwise might be difficult for the `color{violet}("egrets")` to find and catch.

● Another example of `color{violet}("commensalism")` is the `color{violet}("interaction")` between `color{brown}("sea anemone ")` that has stinging tentacles and the `color{brown}("clown fish ")` that lives among them.

● The `color{violet}("fish")` gets protection from `color{violet}("predators")` which stay away from the stinging tentacles.

● The anemone does not appear to derive any benefit by hosting the `color{violet}("clown fish")`.


● This `color{violet}("interaction")` confers `color{brown}("benefits on both")` the interacting species.

● Lichens represent an `color{violet}("intimate mutualistic")` relationship between a `color{violet}("fungus")` and `color{violet}("photosynthesising")` algae or cyanobacteria.

● Similarly, the `color{brown}("mycorrhizae")` are associations between `color{violet}("fungi")` and the roots of `color{violet}("higher plants")`.

● The `color{violet}("fungi")` help the `color{violet}("plant")` in the absorption of `color{violet}("essential nutrients")` from the `color{violet}("soil")` while the plant in turn provides the `color{violet}("fungi")` with `color{violet}("energy-yielding")` carbohydrates.

● The most `color{violet}("spectacular")` and `color{violet}("evolutionarily")` fascinating examples of `color{violet}("mutualism")` are found in plant-animal relationships.

● `color{violet}("Plants")` need the help of `color{violet}("animals")` for pollinating their flowers and dispersing their seeds.

● `color{violet}("Animals")` obviously have to be paid `color{brown}("‘fees’")` for the services that `color{violet}("plants")` expect from them.

● Plants offer rewards or `color{violet}("fees")` in the form of `color{violet}("pollen")` and `color{violet}("nectar")` for pollinators and `color{violet}("juicy")` and `color{violet}("nutritious fruits")` for seed dispersers.

● But the mutually beneficial system should also be safeguarded against`color{brown}(" ‘cheaters’,")` for example, animals that try to `color{violet}("steal nectar")` without `color{violet}("aiding in pollination.")`

● Now you can see why `color{violet}("plant-animal interactions")` often involve `color{brown}("co-evolution")` of the mutualists, that is, the `color{violet}("evolutions")` of the flower and its `color{violet}("pollinator")` species are tightly linked with one another.

● In many species of `color{violet}("fig trees")`, there is a tight `color{brown}("one-to-one relationship")` with the `color{violet}("pollinator")` species of wasp.

● It means that a given fig species can be `color{violet}("pollinated")` only by its `color{violet}("‘partner’")` wasp species and no other species.

● The `color{violet}("female wasp")` uses the fruit not only as an `color{violet}("oviposition (egg-laying)")` site but uses the developing seeds within the fruit for nourishing its larvae


● `color{brown}("Orchids")` show a `color{violet}("bewildering diversity"` of floral patterns many of which have evolved to attract the right pollinator insect `color{violet}("bees and bumblebees")` and ensure guaranteed `color{violet}("pollination")` by it.

● Not all orchids offer rewards.

● The Mediterranean orchid `color{brown}("𝘖𝘱𝘩𝘳𝘺𝘴")` employs `color{brown}("‘sexual deceit’")` to get `color{violet}("pollination")` done by a species of bee.

● One petal of its `color{violet}("flower bears")` an uncanny resemblance to the female of the bee in size, colour and markings.

● The `color{violet}("male bee")` is attracted to what it perceives as a female, `color{brown}("‘pseudocopulates’")` with the flower, and
during that process is `color{violet}("dusted")` with pollen from the flower.

● When this same bee `color{violet}("‘pseudocopulates’")` with another flower, it `color{violet}("transfers pollen")` to it and thus, pollinates the flower.

● Here we can see how `color{brown}("co-evolution")` operates.

● If the `color{violet}("female bee’s")` colour patterns change even slightly for any reason during `color{violet}("evolution, pollination")` success will be reduced unless the `color{violet}("orchid flower co-evolves")` to maintain the resemblance of its petal to the `color{violet}("female bee.")`