`star` Approaches Used
`star` In situ conservation
`star` Ex situ Conservation
`star` Political Measures


● When we `color{violet}("conserve and protect")` the whole `color{violet}("ecosystem")`, its `color{violet}("biodiversity")` at all levels is protected - we save the entire forest to save the tiger.

● This approach is called in `color{violet}("situ (on site) conservation.")`

● However, when there are `color{violet}("situations")` where an `color{violet}("animal")` or `color{violet}("plant")` is endangered or threatened and needs urgent measures to save it from extinction, `color{violet}("ex situ (off site) conservation")` is the desirable approach.


● Faced with the conflict between `color{violet}("development")` and `color{violet}("conservation,")` many nations find it `color{violet}("unrealistic")` and `color{violet}("economically")` not feasible to conserve all their `color{violet}("biological wealth.")`

● Invariably, the number of species waiting to be saved from extinction far exceeds the `color{violet}("conservation resources")`

● On a global basis, this problem has been addressed by `color{violet}("eminent conservationists.")`

● They identified for maximum protection certain `color{brown}("‘biodiversity hotspots’")` regions with very high levels of species richness and high degree of `color{violet}("endemism")` (that is, species confined to that region and not found anywhere else).

● Initially `color{violet}("25 biodiversity hotspots")` were identified but subsequently nine more have been added to the list, bringing the total number of `color{violet}("biodiversity hotspots")` in the world to 34.

● These `color{violet}("hotspots")` are also regions of `color{violet}("accelerated habitat loss.")`

● Three of these hotspots – `color{violet}("Western Ghats")` and `color{violet}("Sri Lanka, Indo-Burma")` and `color{violet}("Himalaya")` – cover our country’s exceptionally high biodiversity regions.

● Although all the `color{violet}("biodiversity hotspots")` put together cover less than `color{violet}("2 %)` of the earth’s land area, the number of species they `color{violet}("collectively harbour")` is extremely high and strict protection of these hotspots could
reduce the ongoing `color{violet}("mass extinctions")` by almost `color{violet}(30 %)`
● In India, `color{violet}("ecologically unique")` and `color{violet}("biodiversity-rich regions")` are legally protected as biosphere reserves, `color{violet}("national parks")` and `color{violet}("sanctuaries.")`

● India now has 14 `color{brown}("biosphere reserves")`, 90 `color{brown}("national parks")` and 448 `color{brown}("wildlife sanctuaries.")`

● India has also a `color{violet}("history of religious and cultural traditions")` that `color{violet}("emphasised protection")` of nature.

● In many `color{violet}("cultures, tracts of forest")` were set aside, and all the `color{violet}("trees")` and `color{violet}("wildlife")` within were venerated and given total protection.

● Such `color{brown}("sacred groves")` are found in `color{violet}("Khasi")` and `color{violet}("Jaintia Hills")` in Meghalaya, `color{violet}("Aravalli Hills")` of Rajasthan, `color{violet}("Western Ghat")` regions of Karnataka and Maharashtra and the `color{violet}("Sarguja, Chanda")` and `color{violet}("Bastar")` areas of Madhya Pradesh.

● In Meghalaya, the sacred groves are the `color{violet}("last refuges")` for a large number of `color{violet}("rare")` and `color{violet}("threatened plants.")`


● In this approach, threatened `color{violet}("animals")` and `color{violet}("plants")` are taken out from their `color{violet}("natural habitat")` and `color{violet}("placed")` in special setting where they can be protected and given special care.

● `color{brown}("Zoological parks, botanical gardens")` and `color{brown}("wildlife safari parks")` serve this purpose.

● There are many `color{violet}("animals")` that have become extinct in the `color{violet}("wild")` but continue to be maintained in `color{violet}("zoological parks.")`

● In recent years `color{violet}("ex situ")` conservation has advanced beyond keeping threatened species in enclosures.

● Now gametes of threatened species can be preserved in `color{violet}("viable")` and `color{violet}("fertile condition")` for long periods using cryopreservation techniques, eggs can be fertilised in `color{violet}(" 𝘷𝘪𝘵𝘳𝘰")`, and `color{violet}("plants")` can be propagated using `color{violet}("tissue culture methods.")`

● Seeds of `color{violet}("different genetic strains")` of commercially important `color{violet}("plants")` can be kept for `color{violet}("long periods")` in seed banks.


● `color{violet}"Biodiversity"` knows no `color{violet}("political boundaries")` and its conservation is therefore a collective responsibility of all nations.

● The historic Convention on Biological Diversity ( `color{brown}("‘The Earth Summit’")`) held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, called upon all nations to take appropriate measures for `color{violet}("conservation of biodiversity")` and `color{violet}("sustainable utilisation")` of its benefits.

● In a follow-up, the `color{brown}("World Summit on Sustainable Development")` held in 2002 in Johannesburg, South Africa, 190 countries pledged their commitment to achieve by 2010, a `color{violet}("significant reduction")` in the current rate of `color{violet}("biodiversity loss")` at `color{violet}("global, regional")` and local levels.