`star` Permanent Tissues
`star` Simple Tissues
`star` Parenchyma
`star` Collenchyma
`star` Sclerenchyma


● The cells of the `color{violet}("permanent tissues")` do not generally divide further.

● `color{violet}("Permanent tissues")` having all `color{violet}("cells")` similar in structure and function are called `color{brown}("simple tissues.")`

● `color{violet}("Permanent tissues")` having many different types of cells are called `color{brown}("complex tissues.")`


● A `color{violet}("simple tissue")` is made of only one type of `color{violet}("cells.")`

● The various `color{violet}("simple tissues")` in plants are:

`star` `color{brown}("Parenchyma,")`
`star` `color{brown}("Collenchyma")`
`star` `color{brown}("Sclerenchyma.")`


● `color{brown}("Parenchyma")` forms the major component within organs.

● The cells of the `color{violet}("parenchyma")` are generally `color{violet}("isodiametric.")`

● They may be spherical, oval, round, `color{violet}("polygonal or elongated")` in shape.

● They may either be `color{violet}("closely packed")` or have small intercellular spaces.

● Their walls are thin and made up of `color{brown}("cellulose.")`

● The `color{violet}("parenchyma")` performs various functions like `color{violet}("photosynthesis,")` storage, secretion.


● The `color{brown}("collenchyma")` occurs in layers below the epidermis in `color{violet}("dicotyledonous plants.")`

● It is found either as a `color{violet}("homogeneous layer")` or in patches.

● `color{violet}("Collenchymatous")` cells may be oval, `color{violet}("spherical")` or `color{violet}("polygonal")` and often contain `color{violet}("chloroplasts.")`

● `color{violet}("Intercellular")` spaces are absent.

● It consists of `color{violet}("cells")` which are much thickened at the `color{violet}("corners")` due to a deposition of `color(brown}("cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin.")`


● These `color{violet}("cells assimilate food")` when they contain `color{violet}("chloroplasts.")`

● They provide mechanical support to the `color{violet}("growing parts")` of the plant such as `color{violet}("young stem")` and `color{violet}("petiole of a leaf")`.

● `color{brown}("Sclerenchyma")` consists of `color{violet}("long, narrow cells")` with thick and `color{violet}("lignified cell walls")` having a few or `color{violet}("numerous pits.")`

● They are usually `color{violet}("dead")` and without `color{violet}("protoplasts.")`

● On the basis of variation in form, `color{violet}("structure, origin")` and `color{violet}("development, sclerenchyma")` may be either `color{violet}("fibres or sclereids.")`

`star` The `color{brown}("fibres")` are thick-walled, `color{violet}("elongated")` and `color{violet}("pointed cells")` generally occuring in groups, in various parts of the `color{violet}("plant.")`

`star` The `color{brown}("sclereids")` are `color{violet}("spherical")`, oval or `color{violet}("cylindrical,")` highly thickened `color{violet}("dead cells")` with very `color{violet}("narrow cavities (lumen).")`

● These are commonly found in the `color{violet}("fruit walls")` of nuts; pulp of fruits like guava, pear and sapota; seed
coats of `color{violet}("legumes")` and `color{violet}("leaves of tea. ")`

● `color{violet}("Sclerenchyma")` provides mechanical support to `color{violet}("organs.")`