`star` Locomotion
`star` Locomotory Structures
`star` Types of Movement


โ˜… Movement is one of the `color{violet}("significant features")` of `color{red}("living beings.")`

โ˜… `color{violet}("Animals and plants")` exhibit a wide range of movements.

โ˜… `color{brown}("Streaming of protoplasm")` in the `color{violet}("unicellular organisms")` like `color{brown}("๐˜ˆ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฃ๐˜ข")` is a simple form of movement.

โ˜… Movement of `color{violet}("cilia, flagella")` and `color{violet}("tentacles")` are shown by `color{violet}("many organisms.")`

โ˜… Human beings can move `color{violet}("limbs, jaws, eyelids, tongue,")` etc.

โ˜… Some of the movements result in a change of `color{violet}("place or location.")`

โ˜… Such voluntary movements are called `color{brown}("locomotion.")`

โ˜… `color{brown}("Walking, running, climbing, flying, swimming")` are all some forms of locomotory movements.


โ˜… `color{violet}("Locomotory structures")` need not be different from those affecting other types of movements.

โ˜… For example, in `color{brown}("๐˜—๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ฎ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ช๐˜ถ๐˜ฎ, cilia")` helps in the movement of food through `color{violet}("cytopharynx and in locomotion")` as well.

โ˜… `color{brown}("๐˜๐˜บ๐˜ฅ๐˜ณ๐˜ข")` can use its `color{brown}("tentacles")` for capturing its prey and also use them for `color{violet}("locomotion")`.

โ˜… We use `color{violet}("limbs")` for changes in body `color{violet}("postures and locomotion")` as well.

โ˜… The above observations suggest that `color{brown}("movements and locomotion")` cannot be studied separately.

โ˜… The two may be linked by stating that `color{brown}("all locomotions")` are `color{brown}("movements")` but `color{brown}("all movements")` are not `color{brown}("locomotions.")`

โ˜… Methods of `color{violet}("locomotion")` performed by `color{violet}("animals")` vary with their habitats and the demand of the situation.

โ˜… However, `color{violet}("locomotion")` is generally for `color{brown}("search")` of `color{violet}("food, shelter,")` mate, suitable breeding grounds, favourable `color{violet}("climatic conditions")` or to escape from enemies/predators.


โ˜… `color{violet}("Cells of the human body")` exhibit three main types of movements, namely, `color{brown}("amoeboid, ciliary and muscular.")`

`star` `color{green}("Amoeboid:")`

โ˜… Some specialised cells in our body like `color{brown}("macrophages and leucocytes")` in `color{violet}("blood exhibit amoeboid")` movement.

โ˜… It is effected by `color{brown}("pseudopodia")` formed by the streaming of `color{violet}("protoplasm (as in Amoeba)")`.

โ˜… `color{violet}("Cytoskeletal elements")` like `color{violet}("microfilaments")` are also involved in amoeboid movement.

`star` `color{green}("Ciliary:")`

โ˜… `color{violet}("Ciliary movement")` occurs in most of our `color{brown}("internal tubular organs")` which are lined by `color{brown}("ciliated epithelium.")`

โ˜… The coordinated movements of `color{violet}("cilia")` in the `color{brown}("trachea")` help us in removing dust particles and some of the foreign substances inhaled alongwith the `color{violet}("atmospheric air.")`

โ˜… Passage of ova through the `color{brown}("female reproductive tract")` is also facilitated by the `color{violet}("ciliary movement")`.

`star` `color{green}("Muscular:")`

โ˜… Movement of `color{violet}("our limbs, jaws, tongue")`, etc, require `color{violet}("muscular movement.")`

โ˜… The contractile property of muscles are effectively used for `color{violet}("locomotion")` and other movements by human beings and majority of multicellular organisms.

โ˜… `color{violet}("Locomotion")` requires a perfect coordinated activity of `color{brown}("muscular, skeletal and neural systems.")`