Chemistry Soil pollution, Pesticides, Industrial pollution

### Topics to be covered

=> Soil pollution
=> Pesticides
=> Industrial pollution

### SOIL POLLUTION

★ India being an agriculture based economy gives high priority to agriculture, fisheries and livestock development.

★ The surplus production is stored by governmental and non-governmental organisations for the lean season. The food loss during the storage also needs special attention.

★ Some insecticides and pesticides are used for protection of our crops but they also cause soil pollution. Hence, there is a need for their judicious use.

### Pesticides

★ Prior to World War II, many naturally occurring chemicals such as nicotine (by planting tobacco plants in the crop field), were used as pest controlling substance for major crops in agricultural practices.

★ During World War II, DDT was found to be of great use in the control of malaria and other insect-borne diseases. Therefore, after the war, DDT was put to use in agriculture to control the damages caused by insects, rodents, weeds and various crop diseases. However, due to adverse effects, its use has been banned in India.

★ Pesticides are basically synthetic toxic chemicals with ecological repercussions. Because of the repeated use of the same or similar pesticides, pests have become resistant to that group of pesticides which makes pesticides ineffective.

★ Therefore, as insect resistance of DDT increased, other organic toxins such as Aldrin and Dieldrin were introduced in the market by pesticide industry. Most of the organic toxins are water insoluble and nonbiodegradable. These high persistent toxins are, therefore, transferred from lower trophic level to higher trophic level through food chain (Fig.14.3).

★ Over the time, the concentration of toxins in higher animals reach a level which causes serious metabolic and physiological disorders. In response to high persistence of chlorinated organic toxins, a new series of less persistent or more bio-degradable products called organo-phosphates and carbamates have been introduced in the market. But these chemicals are severe nerve toxins and hence more harmful to humans. As a result, there are reports of some pesticides related deaths of agricultural field workers.

★ Insects have become resistant to these insecticides also. These days, the pesticide industry has shifted its attention to herbicides such as sodium chlorate color{red}((NaClO_3)), sodium arsinite color{red}((Na_3AsO_3)) and many others .

★ Most herbicides are toxic to mammals but are not as persistent as organo-chlorides. These chemicals decompose in a few months. Like organo-chlorides, these too become concentrated in the food web. Some herbicides cause birth defects.

★ Studies show that cornfields sprayed with herbicides are more prone to insect attack and plant disease than fields that are weeded manually.

★ Pesticides and herbicides represent only a very small portion of widespread chemical pollution. A large number of other compounds that are used regularly in chemical and industrial processes for manufacturing activities are finally released in the atmosphere in one or other form.

### INDUSTRIAL WASTE

Industrial solid wastes are also sorted out as biodegradable and non-degradable wastes.

★ Biodegradable wastes are generated by cotton mills, food processing units, paper mills, and textile factories.

★ Non-biodegradable wastes are generated by thermal power plants which produce fly ash; integrated iron and steel plants which produce blast furnace slag and steel melting slag. Industries manufacturing aluminium, zinc and copper produce mud and tailings. Fertilizer industries produce gypsum. Hazardous wastes such as inflammables, composite explosives or highly reactive substances are produced by industries dealing in metals, chemicals, drugs, pharmaceuticals, dyes, pesticides, rubber goods etc. The disposal of non-degradable industrial solid wastes, if not done by a proper and suitable method, may cause serious threat to the environment.

★ New innovations have led to different uses of waste material. Nowadays, fly ash and slag from the steel industry are utilised by the cement industry. Large quantities of toxic wastes are usually destroyed by controlled incineration, whereas small quantities are burnt along with factory garbage in open bins. Moreover, solid wastes if not managed effectively, affect the components of the environment.