Topics to be covered

`=>` Green chemistry
`=>` Green chemistry in day- to-day life


`color{green}(" โ˜… ๐ˆ๐ง๐ญ๐ซ๐จ๐๐ฎ๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง")`

โ˜… In the last few years overexploitation of soil and excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides have resulted in the deterioration of soil, water and air.Therefore there lies a need to discover methods reduction of deterioration of the environment.

โ˜… Green chemistry is a production process that would bring about minimum pollution or deterioration to the environment. The byproducts generated during a process, if not used gainfully, add to the environmental pollution. The waste generation and its disposal both are economically unsound. `color{green}("๐”๐ญ๐ข๐ฅ๐ข๐ฌ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐ž๐ฑ๐ข๐ฌ๐ญ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐ค๐ง๐จ๐ฐ๐ฅ๐ž๐๐ ๐ž ๐›๐š๐ฌ๐ž ๐Ÿ๐จ๐ซ ๐ซ๐ž๐๐ฎ๐œ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐œ๐ก๐ž๐ฆ๐ข๐œ๐š๐ฅ")` `color{green}("๐ก๐š๐ณ๐š๐ซ๐๐ฌ ๐š๐ฅ๐จ๐ง๐  ๐ฐ๐ข๐ญ๐ก ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐๐ž๐ฏ๐ž๐ฅ๐จ๐ฉ๐ฆ๐ž๐ง๐ญ๐š๐ฅ ๐š๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐ฏ๐ข๐ญ๐ข๐ž๐ฌ")` `color{green}("๐ข๐ฌ ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐Ÿ๐จ๐ฎ๐ง๐๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐ ๐ซ๐ž๐ž๐ง ๐œ๐ก๐ž๐ฆ๐ข๐ฌ๐ญ๐ซ๐ฒ")`

`color{green}(" โ˜… ๐๐Ž๐ˆ๐๐“๐’ ๐“๐Ž ๐๐„ ๐Š๐„๐๐“ ๐ˆ๐ ๐Œ๐ˆ๐๐ƒ ๐–๐‡๐ˆ๐‹๐„ ๐๐„๐‘๐…๐Ž๐‘๐Œ๐ˆ๐๐† ๐€๐๐˜ ๐‘๐„๐€๐‚๐“๐ˆ๐Ž๐")`

โ˜… Benzene, toluene, carbon tetrachloride etc., being highly toxic should be used carefully.

โ˜… Extent of any reaction depends upon physical parameters like temperature, pressure and use of catalyst.

โ˜… In a chemical reaction, if reactants are fully converted into useful environmental friendly products by using an environment friendly medium then there would be no chemical pollutants introduced in the environment.

โ˜… During a synthesis, starting materials must be chosen such that they can be converted into end products with yield approximately upto 100 per cent. This can be achieved by arriving at optimum conditions of synthesis.

โ˜… Water is cost effective, noninflammable and devoid of any carcinogenic effects and has high specific heat and low volatility. So synthetic reactions must be carried out in aqueous medium .

Green Chemistry in day-to-day Life

`color{green}("(๐ข) ๐ƒ๐ซ๐ฒ ๐‚๐ฅ๐ž๐š๐ง๐ข๐ง๐  ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐‚๐ฅ๐จ๐ญ๐ก๐ž๐ฌ:")`

Tetra chlroroethene `color{red}((Cl_2C=C Cl_2))` earlier used as solvent for dry cleaning has been repaced because it contaminates the ground water and is also a suspected carcinogen.Now liquefied carbondioxide, with a suitable detergent is used. Replacement of halogenated solvent by liquid `color{red}(CO_2)` will result in less harm to ground water. Hydrogen peroxide `color{red}((H_2O_2))` is also used for the purpose of bleaching clothes in the process of laundary, which gives better results and makes use of lesser amount of water.

`color{green}("(๐ข๐ข) ๐๐ฅ๐ž๐š๐œ๐ก๐ข๐ง๐  ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐๐š๐ฉ๐ž๐ซ:")`

Earlier chlorine gas was used for bleaching paper but now hydrogen peroxide `color{red}((H_2O_2))` with suitable catalyst is used.

`color{green}("(๐ข๐ข๐ข) ๐’๐ฒ๐ง๐ญ๐ก๐ž๐ฌ๐ข๐ฌ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐‚๐ก๐ž๐ฆ๐ข๐œ๐š๐ฅ๐ฌ:")`

Ethanal `color{red}((CH_3CHO))` is now commercially prepared by one step oxidation of ethene in the presence of ionic catalyst in aqueous medium with a yield of 90%.

`color{red}(CH_2 = CH_2 + O_2 underset(" Pd(II) / Cu (II) (in water)") overset("catalyst")โ†’ CH_3CHO ( 90%))`

`color{green}("Green chemistry, in a nutshell, is a cost effective approach which")` `color{green}(" involves reduction in material, energy consumption and waste generation.")`