Class 6

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color{green}(โข) There are three Components of Maps โ distance, direction and symbol.

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color{green}(โข) Maps are drawings, which reduce the entire world or a part of it to fit on a sheet of paper.

color{green}(โข) Or we can say maps are drawn to reduced scales.

color{green}(โข) But this reduction is done very carefully so that the distance between the places is real.

color{green}(โข) It can only be possible when a small distance on paper represents a large distance on the ground.

color{green}(โข) Therefore, a scale is chosen for this purpose.

color{green}(โข) Scale is the ratio between the actual distance on the ground and the distance shown on the map.

color{green}(โข) For example, the distance between your school and your home is 10 km.

color{green}(โข) If you show this 10 km. distance by 2 cm on a map, it means, 1 cm on the map will show 5 km. on the ground.

color{green}(โข) The scale of your drawing will be 1cm = 5 km.

color{green}(โข) Thus, scale is very important in any map.

color{green}(โข) If you know the scale, you will be able to calculate the distance between any two places on a map.

color{green}(โข) When large areas like continents or countries are to be shown on a paper, then we use a small scale.

color{green}(โข) For example 5 cm. on the map shows 500 km. of the ground.

color{green}(โข) It is called a small scale map.

color{green}(โข) When a small area like your village or town is to be shown on paper, then we use a large scale that is 5 cm. on the map shows 500 metres only on the ground.

color{green}(โข) It is called a large scale map.

color{green}(โข) Large scale maps give more information than small scale maps.

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color{green}(โข) Most maps contain an arrow marked with the letter โNโ at the upper right hand corner.

color{green}(โข) This arrow shows the north direction.

color{green}(โข) It is called the north line.

color{green}(โข) When you know the north, you can find out other directions, for example east, west and south.

color{green}(โข) There are four major directions, North, South, East and West {Figure 4.2 (a)}.

color{green}(โข) They are called cardinal points. Other four intermediate directions are north-east (NE), southeast(SE), south-west (SW) and north-west (NW).

color{green}(โข) We can locate any place more accurately with the help of these intermediate directions

color{green}(โข) Find out the following directions from the Figure 4.1: (a) The direction of the Community Centre, the playground from Vikasโs house (b) the direction of school from shops.

color{green}(โข) We can find out the direction of a place with the help of a compass.

color{green}(โข) It is an instrument used to find out main directions.

color{green}(โข) Its magnetic needle always points towards north-south direction {Figure 4.2 (b)}.

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color{green}(โข) It is the third important component of a map.

color{green}(โข) It is not possible to draw on a map the actual shape and size of different features such as buildings, roads, bridges, trees, railway lines or a well.

color{green}(โข) So, they are shown by using certain letters, shades, colours, pictures and lines These symbols give a lot of information in a limited space.

color{green}(โข) With the use of these symbols, maps can be drawn easily and are simple to read.

color{green}(โข) Even if you donโt know the language of an area and therefore cannot ask someone for directions, you can collect information from maps with the help of these symbols.

color{green}(โข) Maps have a universal language that can be understood by all.

color{green}(โข) There is an international agreement regarding the use of these symbols.

color{green}(โข) These are called conventional symbols.

color{green}(โข) Some of the conventional symbols are shown in the Figure 4.3.

color{green}(โข) Various colours are used for the same purpose. For example, generally blue is used for showing water bodies, brown for mountain, yellow for plateau and green is used for plains.

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color{green}(โข) A sketch is a drawing mainly based on memory and spot observation and not to scale.

color{green}(โข) Sometimes a rough drawing is required of an area to tell where a particular place is located with respect to other places.

color{green}(โข) Suppose, you want to go to your friendโs house, but you donโt know the way.

color{green}(โข) Your friend may make a rough drawing to show the way to his house.

color{green}(โข) Such a rough drawing is drawn without scale, and is called a sketch map.

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color{green}(โข) A plan is a drawing of a small area on a large scale.

color{green}(โข) A large-scale map gives lot of information, but there are certain things which we may sometimes want to know for example the length and breadth of a room, which canโt be shown in a map.

color{green}(โข) At that time, we can refer drawings drawn to scale called a plan.

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๐๐ง๐ฌ๐ฐ๐๐ซ ๐ญ๐ก๐ ๐๐จ๐ฅ๐ฅ๐จ๐ฐ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐ช๐ฎ๐๐ฌ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง๐ฌ ๐๐ซ๐ข๐๐๐ฅ๐ฒ.

(a) What are the three components of a map?

(b) What are the four cardinal directions?

(c) What do you mean by the term 'the scale of the map'?

(d) How are maps more helpful than a globe?

(e) Distinguish between a map and a plan.

(f) Which map provides detailed information?

(g) How do ยทsymbols help in reading maps?